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A tornado is a strong atmospheric vortex over land that is extremely repeatable.
Tornadoes occur quite often, but it is impossible to predict exactly where it will occur next time, and therefore one has to "chase" the tornado. The mobile laboratories used in such pursuits are too fragile and collapse before they can reach the center of the tornado and begin to study it.
It has not yet been possible to obtain a tornado in a laboratory under controlled conditions: this would require an experimental installation hundreds of meters in size.
The tornado is still an obscure atmospheric phenomenon surrounded by many myths and misconceptions.
Usually, when a tornado arrives, there is time to hide from adversity. In fact, it is not always possible to guess that a real hurricane has come, as it can start with hail or heavy rain. In a wooded area, in the mountains or in a city, very often the danger is noticed exactly when it is already inevitable. You also need to be aware that some tornadoes do not look like a typical pillar descending from a cloud. The arrival of the tornado is accompanied by the strongest winds, carrying the debris of everything that came in their way.
My car can go much faster than a tornado. In fact, the average speed of a tornado is 40-65 km / h, with some moving at even faster speeds. Even if your car can move faster than a tornado, this does not mean that you have to continue on your way, because the tornado moves in a variety of directions. If you are en route and see a tornado heading in your direction, turn out of the way and take refuge.
If there is no other way to hide, then the car will be a more reliable refuge than a trailer or a country house. In fact, this is not always the case. This topic is hotly debated in North America. If you have time, you can jump into the car and take cover there. In the case of a low-power tornado, the car will provide a reliable shelter from objects carried by the wind stream or rolling on the ground. It is best to buckle up well and keep your head as low as possible. However, do not forget that a stronger tornado can destroy the cars in its path.
It is possible to know about the approaching tornado in advance enough to warn the population, thanks to Doppler radars. Doppler radars detect the formation of precipitation and wind accompanying a storm, and allow meteorologists to detect signs of an approaching tornado. But the approach of a tornado can only be asserted with certainty when the tornado is in sight. If the weather service warns of an impending thunderstorm, then there is the possibility of a tornado.
Settlements located near rivers, lakes and mountains are well protected from tornadoes. In fact, there is no place that would be completely protected from tornadoes. They can cross water surfaces and even form above water. Thunderstorms tend to become less intense over large lakes, but they can also develop into tornadoes upon reaching the shore. It should be noted that in most cases, tornadoes do not occur near water streams.
A sudden pressure surge accompanying a tornado could blow up a building. This means that all windows should be opened in order to balance the internal and external air pressure. Most of the material damage is caused by the wind and the objects it carries. Because of this, you should avoid open windows and take shelter in safe places away from doors, windows and outside walls. With a tornado, every second counts and you need to hurry to go for cover. You need to tightly close and reinforce the windows so that rain, hail and wind cannot enter the room and cause damage.
Tornadoes are more likely to occur in areas where trailers and mobile homes are located. Mobile dwellings are not capable of attracting tornadoes, but they are most vulnerable due to their design.
In case of a tornado, you need to hide in the southwest side of the basement. This claim has not been proven. It comes from the belief that tornadoes usually come from the southwest, and that objects carried by the wind will fall in the opposite direction of the basement. But in fact, a tornado can appear from any direction and the objects that it carries can fall anywhere. In general, tables, ladders, mattresses, and other items of sufficient weight provide good protection against tornadoes and objects carried by them.
Highways are a good shelter from tornadoes. This assertion came after a series aired in the early 1990s. In fact, highways are capable of attracting tornadoes and are therefore a particularly dangerous place. In recent years, many people have been seriously injured or killed while trying to escape tornadoes on the freeways. Instead, head to a pit or deep depression where there is no risk of car collisions. However, be careful not to drown and be flooded with water.
The larger the tornado, the more destructive it is. The appearance and size of a tornado can be deceiving: seemingly harmless natural phenomena can be more destructive than others, have more intense wind force, and more impressive outwardly, on the contrary. The Fujita scale used to determine the severity of tornadoes is not based on their size, but on the destructive force.
Tornadoes never hit big cities. In fact, tornadoes are not afraid of cities: for example, Winnipeg was hit by a tornado 12 times, of which one person died. Regina was struck 18 times and 28 deaths were recorded following a tornado in 1912. Edmonton was hit by 18 tornadoes, one of which was the deadliest in 1987 (27 people died).
If the storm is heading east, then the threat is over. The truth is that most thunderstorms run from west to east, but sometimes they can change their direction in the opposite direction. The tornado that hit Nipawa (Manitoba) in 2000 traveled from east to west for 10 kilometers before dying.