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Businessmen are usually not as famous as show business figures. After the death of Steve Jobs in October 2011, the world began to rethink his life and deeds.
This man had an extremely difficult character, many did not like him. But it is difficult to overestimate his contribution to the development of technologies in the modern world. And although Steve Jobs kept his personal life a secret, thanks to his biography, published after his death, we learned a lot about him. However, even close friends cannot say that they knew Jobs well. His life was surrounded by myths, legends and gossip. Isn't it time to get rid of some of them?
Steve Jobs received a one dollar salary. It is believed that when Steve Jobs returned to running Apple in 1997, he immediately set himself a one dollar salary. This salary remained until the very moment the manager left the post in 2011. This beautiful legend was replicated by journalists. But was Jobs really so small that the money was not even enough to buy music on iTunes? In fact, the company preferred a different route to motivate its top managers. They were entitled to incentive payments and blocks of shares. In big business, this is generally a fairly common approach. For example, the CEO of a chain of wholesale supermarkets and its founder, John McKee, as well as the CEO of Google, Eric Schmidt, in 2008 also had a salary of one dollar. In fact, everyone understands that Steve Jobs' earnings were clearly high. For example, for records in computer sales in 2000, Apple awarded its leader with a private jet. But the liner cost as much as $ 88 million. By April 2011, Jobs owned 5.6 million shares of the company. This allowed the manager to take the 136th place in the list of the richest people in the world, compiled by Forbes magazine in 2010.
Steve Jobs's Mercedes-Benz SL55 AMG had no license plates, which made it illegal. Steve Jobs was a rather stubborn and extravagant person. He believed that numbers on his car were not needed. And there are at least three explanations for this behavior. First, the company's founder's wealth could have allowed him to pay any number of fines. Another version says that Jobs was close friends with the California authorities, which turned a blind eye to such a violation of traffic rules and the lack of registration. In fact, the story has a simple explanation. Jobs discovered a loophole in state law. It turns out that article 4456 states that the owner of the car is obliged to register the car within six months after purchase. Steve Jobs signed a contract with the leasing company, according to which every six months he received a new silver Mercedes SL55 AMG. The company was selling the previous car. Many people wanted to buy the car that Jobs himself used. But some researchers believe that this whole story is a myth that works for the image of Jobs, and therefore his entire company, even after the death of the manager himself. The fact is that the famous Mercedes-Benz SL55 AMG was discontinued in 2008, and the Mercedes-Benz SL63 AMG model replaced it. It is logical that after 2009, Jobs had to change the car for another. In the summer of 2010, photos of the Mercedes-Benz SL55 AMG appeared on the Internet. This car, it was alleged, also belonged to Jobs. Its mileage was over 21 thousand miles.
Steve Jobs had a regular casual outfit - jeans and a black turtleneck. Steve Jobs almost always appeared in such clothes. But he himself did not name the reasons for this choice. Such clothes looked comfortable. Perhaps Jobs wants to be comfortable at work? According to another version, due to his busyness, he simply saved time on choosing and changing clothes. There are suggestions that by his appearance, Jobs showed the use of creativity in other areas. Perhaps the manager was showing his love for simple and effective things. But it is a misconception that Jobs always wore only turtleneck jeans. When it was necessary, he easily changed style. So, in 2001 at the MacWorld exhibition in Tokyo, Jobs appeared in a suit, and at the awards ceremony he wore a tuxedo. Sometimes at work he was seen in a white T-shirt and a black waistcoat. They said that Jobs also had a white turtleneck.
At one time, Steve Jobs vowed not to return to Japan. This story did not appear out of nowhere. In 2010, the leader of Apple was vacationing in Japan, in Kyoto. Finishing his vacation, he drove to the airport to board his private jet and go home. However, when passing through security, the security service forbade Jobs to land on his own plane. The fact is that the billionaire acquired ninja throwing stars while on vacation. Jobs decided to take this weapon with him as a souvenir. Angered by the security guards' refusal to let him in, the businessman is said to have declared that he will never come to Japan again. But this story turned out to be a myth. Host representatives said there was no such story. Jobs liked the trip itself and hoped to visit the country again in the near future.
Steve Jobs constantly intimidated his employees for no reason. It is believed that Steve Jobs was a real perfectionist who paid attention to even the smallest details. What seemed insignificant to the average engineer could seem very important to him. And more than once because of trifles, as employees believed, Jobs stopped all work. However, he did not hesitate to express his opinion. Jobs praised those who worked. At the same time, someone who distinguished himself the next day could be punished for a mistake. Employees who worked with Jobs said that they presented their best creations to him, but he was not satisfied with all this. The CEO was rude, sometimes taking an aggressive approach to test the skills of his employees. If people could defend their point of view, Jobs would listen to them. If they were silent without a murmur, the boss fired them. Harsh criticism was considered by Jobs to be an excellent motivation and productivity tool. And although others did not like this approach, it gave results. The actions of the manager are contrary to everything that is usually written in the manuals for personnel management. Nevertheless, Apple has managed to become a thriving company selling the best gadgets. And although Jobs developed a reputation as a demanding and tough manager, he also managed to earn the dedication and admiration of his employees. They just got used to it, accepting the rules of the "game".
Steve Jobs was disliked by his employees. Some publications wrote that company employees were afraid to meet with their boss. After all, he could always ask several questions, firing a specialist if the answer did not satisfy. But for the idea he liked, Jobs could “reward” an employee with work on weekends or together. In fact, Apple had a team that was ready to work literally day and night. Many have given up their weekends or vacations to work with Jobs. Not everyone liked this state of affairs. But these people did not stay in the company for long. The boss himself asked these subordinates what they were doing here if they were not ready to devote themselves to creating better products. Here it is not worth talking about aversion to people. Jobs just wanted to see the same enthusiasts next to him, for whom money fade into the background. The businessman was not only very open, but also very demanding. It constantly seemed that in him these two halves were fighting each other.
Jobs stole the mouse idea from Xerox. The computer mouse was invented by Xerox. One day in 1979, Steve Jobs was shown this ridiculous, expensive device, which, according to engineers, had no future. But he liked the idea itself. Apple has been working for several years to create a truly working device. A full-fledged mouse became a tool of the Macintosh computer in 1984. At that time, the analog from Xerox had been on sale for several years. How could you steal an idea that everyone already knows about?
Steve Jobs acquired Pixar in 1986. The studio was founded in 1979 by George Lucas. However, by the mid-1980s, he decided to get rid of the unpromising asset. It is believed that Steve Jobs acquired Pixar for $ 10 million. However, not everything is so simple in this story. The rights to the company and its management remained with Ed Catmull and Alvy Ray Smith. Together with Jobs, they formed the board of directors. In fact, he acted as an investor, buying 70% of the company's shares. Half of the amount spent went to the development of the company. Over the next several years, the company was periodically left without funds. Each time Jobs invested his money, receiving shares in return. As a result, by 1991, he invested $ 50 million, having received a package of almost 100%. And only in 1995, Jobs became CEO of the company, having bought all the shares. It was then that he became a full-fledged owner.
Steve Jobs co-founded Pixar. According to the founding documents of the company, its co-founders were Ed Catmull and Elvy Smith. When they left LucasFilm, they brought another 38 employees with them. But in Silicon Valley, it's not a practice to call investors co-founders. The company was not invented by him.
Steve Jobs invented digital animation. Ed and Alvy have been in contact with Disney since the mid-1970s to draw attention to new technologies. But things did not go beyond the release of capital letters to cartoons. The animators agreed with the Japanese to release a cartoon about a monkey, but then it turned out that the computer power did not allow the project to be completed. So by 1986, these ideas were in the air. Thanks to Moore's Law, it looked like computers could make a breakthrough. John Lasseter suggested starting with short films. And this idea turned out to be successful, bringing the animator an Oscar even before Jobs became head of the company in 1995. For two years, while the studio worked with Disney to create Toy Story, Jobs did not manage it. Becoming the head of the company, he immediately got his hands on the resounding success of the cartoon. And then Jobs already skillfully disposed of the result, selling Pixar for $ 7 billion.
Jobs came up with the name Pixar. In fact, Elvy Ray Smith did it. The name came from an imaging computer he named with Lauren Carpenter. First, the couple decided to choose a word that sounded like "laser". The first version sounded like "pixer". Carpenter, with the big word "radar" in mind, suggested changing "pixar" to "pixar". The name was given to the computer when the studio was still part of LucasFilm. When the new company was created, it was decided to choose a name that was already closely associated with the team. And Jobs had nothing to do with this decision.
Steve Jobs ran Pixar. It can be assumed that after the deal in 1986, Jobs took control. In fact, Ed Catmull ran the company. The company has been in his hands since its inception. In 1985, Catmull was considered President and Chief Executive Officer, Alvy Smith was Vice President and Chief Technology Officer. In July 1987, Jobs was named chairman of the board, under the president and CEO, Catmull. In 1988-1989, the position of Jobs was indicated in the documents as director and main shareholder. After the IPO, Steve and Ed effectively shared responsibilities as head of the studio, but Steve was busy with the sinking Apple, so Catmull continued to take over the responsibilities.
Jobs' investment saved Pixar. Jobs didn't mindlessly pour money into a dying company. He economized a lot at times. Despite Jobs's investment, Pixar was the only one to fail. So the company, even with the infusion of its main shareholder, was in trouble. And she was saved by the Disney company, which agreed to make a big movie. And Jobs did not own the idea. He was generally interested in hardware capabilities, he did not know anything about animation. Pixar was often left without funds, and Jobs invested over and over again, seeing the potential of the movie business. But he would sell this asset if someone was willing to reimburse the 50 million he had already spent.
Jobs did not do charity work. After his death, it became known that Jobs, along with his family, had been making donations anonymously for 20 years. Yes, he was not as big a philanthropist as Bill Gates, but this very fact underlines the greatness of the personality.
Jobs invented the personal computer. This myth is constantly replicated in documentaries. In fact, Gary Kildall became the actual author of the idea. Even Intel didn't think its processors could be used at home. Kildall called his company Digital Research. Back in 1973, he demonstrated the first device of its kind that could connect to a teletypewriter. Steve Jobs did not invent the PC, he just popularized the idea by changing the whole world with his Apple I, II and Macintosh machines.
Steve Jobs came up with a graphical user interface. The idea for the user to work with graphic elements was invented at Xerox back in 1975. Apple's variant was called Lisa and this computer appeared only in 1983. But Steve was removed from further development. Jobs later became interested in the Macintosh project, leading it. A whole R&D center in Palo Alto worked on the implementation of the GUI, with former employees of Xerox involved. The company refined the idea, the Macintosh became the first commercial computer to showcase all the capabilities of the GUI.
Steve Jobs was a great designer. Apple products are loved for their unrivaled design. After Jobs's death, it became known that it was not he who was responsible for the design of the products, but Johnny Ive. It's just that this man has always remained in the shadows. Jobs considered the options, choosing the best of the best. His role was not to be a great designer, but to be a great leader.
Jobs figured out that phones could have apps. The Apple iPhone has become a pioneer in mobile applications. Today it is impossible to imagine our life without smartphones and without programs for them. In fact, long before the iPhone was launched, there was a TreoSmartphone (Palm) running numerous applications. And even the popular game "Snake" on Nokia phones was also primitive, but an application.
Steve Jobs innovated everywhere. Jobs' talent is considered to be constantly creating innovative products. In fact, many of his Apple creations were not original. Jonathan Schwartz, the former head of Sun Microsystems, said Jobs opposed open source systems. The idea behind the Mac Os X was borrowed from another operating system, NeXTStep, created by NeXT. Safari's browser engine, WebKit, was taken from Konqueror. Even the iPod doesn't have a unique font, it comes from the FreeType public resource. Jobs was the best innovator of his day, but he was smart enough to draw inspiration from other products.
Steve Jobs invented tablets. Thanks to Steve Jobs, tablet computers have burst into our lives. However, he made them popular, but did not create such a concept at all. Almost 10 years before the Apple iPad, Microsoft released its own version of the tablet computer, which turned out to be a deafening failure for it.Back in 1968, one of the theorists of computing systems proposed the concept of Dynabook, which was supposed to combine a laptop, tablet and e-book for educational purposes. Unfortunately, this project never entered the market. In the same year, Stanley Kubrick's film "A Space Odyssey of 2001" was released, in which one of the astronauts works with a device that very much resembles modern tablet computers. And Steve Jobs created a really convenient device, proved its viability and taught the whole world to use a new class of devices.