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Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10.11.1759 - 9.05.1805) - an outstanding German poet, playwright, historian, author of a number of theoretical works on art, one of the founders of modern literature in Germany. He penned such famous works as the tragedy "The Robbers" (1781-82), "Wallenstein" (1800), the dramas "Treachery and Love" (1784), "Don Carlos", "William Tell" (1804), romantic tragedy " The Maid of Orleans "(1801).
Schiller's life was closely associated with the army. Friedrich Christoph's father was Johann Kaspar Schiller, a paramedic, an officer in the service of the Duke of Württemberg; after graduating from the Latin school in Ludwigsburg in 1772, Schiller was enrolled in a military school (where the writer studied medicine and jurisprudence), which later received the status of an academy; at the end of the latter in 1780, Schiller was appointed to Stuttgart as a regimental doctor.
Schiller was forbidden to write. Absent from the regiment in Mannheim for the presentation of his first tragedy "The Robbers", Schiller was given a ban on writing anything other than essays on a medical topic. A similar attack on his literary work made Schiller prefer the duke's possessions, in which he was at that time, other German lands.
Schiller wrote plays especially for theaters. In the summer of 1783, the intendant of the Mannheim Theater signed a contract with Schiller, according to which the playwright was to write plays specifically for staging on the Mannheim stage. The dramas "Treachery and Love" and "Fiesco's Conspiracy in Genoa", which had begun before the conclusion of this theatrical agreement, were staged in Mannheim. After them, the contract with Schiller, despite the resounding success of "Treachery and Love", was not renewed.
Schiller studied history. In 1787, Schiller moved to Weimar, and in 1788 took up the editing of A History of Remarkable Rebellions and Plots, a series of books on various historical upheavals in society. As part of his work, Schiller opened the topic of self-determination of the Netherlands, which received freedom from Spanish rule. In 1793, the writer published The History of the Thirty Years War. In addition, all his diverse drama is full of historical themes. Schiller writes about Joan of Arc and Mary Stuart, and does not ignore the legendary Swiss hero Wilhelm Tell and many, many others.
Schiller knew Goethe. The two classics of German literature met in 1788, and already in 1789, with the help of Goethe, Schiller was promoted to professor of history at the University of Jena. Subsequently, the writers were in correspondence with each other of a literary and aesthetic nature, were co-authors in the cycle of epigrams "Xenia". Friendship with Goethe prompted Schiller to create such famous lyric works as "The Glove", "Polikratov's Ring", "Ivik's Cranes".
Schiller greeted the French Revolution with enthusiasm. Despite the author's approval of the fall of the feudal system, Schiller reacted to what happened in France with some degree of apprehension: he did not like the execution of Louis XVI, and the Jacobin dictatorship that was raising his head.
Schiller was helped by money from the crown prince. Despite his professorship at the University of Jena, Schiller's income was extremely small, there was not enough money even for the most basic things. Crown Prince Fr. Cr. von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustinburg decided to help the poet and for three years (from 1791 to 1794) paid him a scholarship. Since 1799, it has been doubled.
During his life, Schiller fell in love many times. In his youth, the ideals of the poet were Laura Petrarch and Francis von Hohengey, the metress of the Wiertemberg Duke, later Karl's wife and the new Duchess. Seventeen-year-old Schiller was completely delighted with the charming and noble Francis, in her he saw the concentration of all virtues and it was her that he brought out in his famous drama "Treachery and Love" under the name of Lady Milford. Later, Schiller began to have feelings for more real women, with whom he could well tie the knot, but for a number of reasons he did not. At Henrietta Wolzogen's estate, where the poet was hiding from the duke's persecution, he fell in love with the daughter of the woman who took him in, Charlotte, but neither the girl herself nor her mother showed sufficient fervor towards Schiller: the girl loved another, and her mother did not like the poet's precarious position in society ... One of the main roles in the life and literary activity of Schiller was destined to be played by another Charlotte - a married lady by the name of Marshalk von Ostheim, by her husband Kalb. However, his love for Charlotte did not prevent Schiller from being carried away by other women, such as actresses who play in performances staged by his plays, or simply beautiful girls who love literature and art. On one of the last - Margarita Schwann, Schiller almost got married. The poet was stopped by the fact that he would also like to marry Charlotte, and Margarita's father did not give his consent to the marriage. The relationship with Charlotte ended quite prosaically - the poet lost interest in the woman who did not dare to divorce her husband for him. Schiller's wife was Charlotte von Lengfeld, whom the poet met in 1784 in Mannheim, but only really drew attention to her three years later. Interestingly, the love for Charlotte for some time bordered in the soul of Schiller, along with love for her older sister Caroline, who, for the sake of the happiness of her sister and beloved Frederick, married an unloved person and left their path. Schiller's wedding took place on February 20, 1790.
Schiller's mature work reflected the conflict between the educational ideal and reality. The most significant in this regard is the 1795 poem "Ideal and Life", as well as the later tragedies of the German playwright, in which the problem of a free world order is posed against the background of a terrifyingly harsh social life.
Schiller was a nobleman. Schiller's nobility was bestowed upon the Holy Roman Emperor of the German nation by Francis II in 1802.
Schiller was in poor health. Throughout almost his entire life, the poet was often ill. Towards the end of his life, Schiller developed tuberculosis. The writer died on May 9, 1805 in Weimar.
Schiller's work was highly regarded in Russia. The classical translations of Schiller in Russian literature are the translations of Zhukovsky. In addition, Schiller's works were translated by Derzhavin, Pushkin, Lermontov, Tyutchev and Fet. The works of the German playwright Turgenev, Lev Tolstoy, Dostoevsky were highly appreciated.