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Lying is a conscious statement that does not correspond to the truth, different from unconscious or delusion. Most often, we have erroneous ideas about lies, which we will debunk. It is not known where the word "lie" came from in Russian.
The origin of the word lie is unclear, even Dahl's dictionary cannot clearly say where it came from, content only with interpreting the meaning. As we found out, this word comes from "ski", which does not mean at all a means of transportation on the snow, but "false news". Just a couple of centuries ago, the sound "y" was not yet swallowed, and the word sounded like "jump". The names Zalygin and Perelygin just have related roots.
A gesture or a pose can give the liar. Theories, books, films are even devoted to this myth. A person, when he is lying, must certainly fiddle with his ear or rub his forehead, eyes, cover his mouth with his hand. That is, subconsciously demonstrate your concerns. But is it possible to conclude from this that if the interlocutor rubs his ear, then he will certainly lie? Of course not. To draw such conclusions means to fall into the trap of Brokaw, that is, do not take into account the individuality of a person, but be content with only theoretical calculations. For example, a calm and dispassionate voice is considered a sign of a truthful person. But if the interlocutor is basically devoid of emotions and his voice is naturally even and expressionless, does this mean that he always speaks only the truth?
A long pause in conversation can be interpreted as a lie. It is interesting that those subjects who were oriented towards detecting lies interpreted the long pause in this way, while those people who were asked to reveal the truth interpreted the pause in the conversation as meditation, an unambiguous sign of truthfulness. That is, there can be no unambiguous interpretation! But it is possible to reveal a lie by eye movement. It has been noticed that when a person starts to lie, to dream, he first looks to the right and up, and then to the left and down. Thus, he creates a new image and tries to control his speech.
Lying triggers a unique response from the autonomic nervous system. On this score, scientists are still arguing. Many scientists believe that the accompanying lies - increased heart rate, pulse rate, change in the frequency of swallowing, increased sweating is caused not only by lies, but also by feelings of shame, fear, grief from deception. In the event that a special physiological reaction is attributed to the lie, this will help to simplify the decryption of data from the lie detector.
A lie detector allows you to catch a lie. A lie detector is an apparatus for recording the parameters of the cardiovascular system, respiration and other physiological parameters. Analyzing them, the device shows a surge in the case of the use of lies. The first use of this kind of device was recorded at the end of the 19th century. However, today the effectiveness of the detector is largely disputed. Thus, the bias of the subject, the expert can lead to erroneous data, the results can simply be misinterpreted, and the error can often cost a very long time. This is why the courts in Germany and Poland do not even consider the testimony of a lie detector, and in the USA in 2003 a special report "Polygraph and Lie Detection" was published in which polygraph testing was called "unreliable, unscientific and biased."
Women, unlike men, constantly lie. If you believe the statistics, then the opposite is true. The average man lies five times a day, and the woman only three.
People lie about everything. This is of course true, but there are several phrases that people use to lie more often. A US study found that the most common lie is the phrase "I'm fine." In second place is the hackneyed phrase "No, you're not fat at all" or "Yes, you look good." But the eternal "I love you" closes the top three.
We don't have much time for life. Soulless statistics from the British company Beverage Brands say that during 60 years of life, each of us will lie almost 88 thousand times. As you can see, vows to always tell the truth and nothing but the truth are usually not embodied.
The most deceitful profession is a journalist. It turns out that sociologists were able to compile a list of professions in which a person most often lies. Indeed, in Western rankings, the journalist is leading, followed by real estate agents. In Russia, these specialties are located in harmless 21st and 16th places, respectively. But our rating is headed by politicians, PR people, actors, lawyers, economists, advertisers, doctors. It is noteworthy that on our list there are seemingly harmless professions - teachers, scientists and designers. In order for people to start lying in their profession, there are certain prerequisites. This requires a large number of external contacts, dependence of career development on other people, the ability to reject promises and legal impunity. The differences in ratings are obvious - if our politicians can be given empty promises and not be held accountable for their actions, then this is unacceptable in Europe.
There are no pathological liars. Scientists have proven that such people exist and are distinguished by more than just a penchant for stories about fictional events that never existed to friends. Such people have less gray matter in their brains than ordinary people. Apparently, the lack of substances in the head makes these people invent and deceive, thus attracting attention to themselves. In addition, pathological liars differ from ordinary ones in that they themselves soon begin to believe in their fantasies.
You can't lie for your own pleasure. A striking debunking of this myth is the legendary Baron Munchausen. This, by the way, is a real historical person. After serving a little in Russia, the baron returned to his homeland, subsequently inventing a lot of stories about his adventures in Russia. For the amusement of the neighbors, Munchausen regaled them with bright stories in a special pavilion of lies. Soon, these stories began to disperse around the neighborhood, they were even printed. Even while on his deathbed, the baron told his maid that a polar bear bit off two of his toes on his leg, although in fact he lost them from frostbite. As you can see, Munchausen lived cheerfully and lied quite cheerfully, receiving incomparable pleasure from this.
On the first date, women usually lie. Again, a poll of Americans debunked this myth. Men lie more often. About what? A quarter hides their true marital status and the presence of children. The same number of people tell lies about their income levels, exaggerating them. But women, along with men, hide the truth about the number of their sexual partners - 17% of Americans lie about this.
The biggest parental lie is Santa Claus or Santa Claus. And in this matter, English sociologists have compiled a kind of hit parade. Indeed, New Year's grandfather comes first with gifts. They also lie to children that picking the nose will lead to the head falling off, that children are found in cabbage or gooseberries, that bones can grow in the stomach, that liars have a sore tongue. But, despite the last statement, parents lie to their children, somewhere for good, for educational purposes, and somewhere - obeying an inexplicable human instinct - to lie.