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Krav Maga (Hebrew, from "magician" - "close" or "contact", "krav" - "fight") is an effective modern hand-to-hand combat system developed by Imi Lichtenfeld, which can be easily learned by both men and women. The main goal of this system is to quickly neutralize the threat in real life.
The very name of the system "close combat" indicates that in this case we are talking about direct physical interaction with the enemy (as opposed to combat with the use of weapons at a distance). At the same time, it should be mentioned that Krav Maga provides for the study of both various modern types of weapons - both piercing and cutting (knife) and small arms (pistol, rifle, etc.), and other items that can be used for self-defense.
This hand-to-hand combat system is not a sport, it is not burdened with a large number of clear rules and prohibitions. There is no special uniform for classes and competitions, although it is customary in some organizations to award emblems and different levels to students as they learn. Krav Maga techniques are aimed at achieving the fastest and most effective results in real conditions of a clash with an aggressive and ruthless adversary, whose actions pose a direct threat to the lives of others.
The emphasis is on hitting the most vulnerable points (punches in the groin, Adam's apple, poking in the eyes, etc.), head strikes, the use of any objects at hand. In addition, methods of mitigating reception in accordance with the created situation are being studied and the limits of the necessary self-defense that the defender must comply with, weighing his own reaction against the threat are clearly established. In general, this system is designed to eliminate immediate danger, prevent aggressive actions and neutralize the attacker (in some cases, this allows a transition from defense to attack).
Krav Maga training is the same as in other martial arts. Indeed, Krav Maga has a lot in common with other self-defense systems, but trainings for this type of close combat are not identical in everything, for example, judo or karate.
First, training involves the use of protective equipment (groin, head, lower leg, forearm, etc.) to achieve a realistic level of exposure while minimizing the possibility of injury. Indeed, only in this case, the student can fully feel the force of the blow and work out the technique of defense and attack, without risking harm to himself and the sparring partner (this is one of the fundamental principles of training).
Secondly, the student is trained to fight in the worst, often unfavorable conditions (one-handed fight, a fight with several attackers, protection from an armed enemy, etc.), taught not to be distracted by various external factors. For this purpose, during training, loud music, a stroboscope, an installation that generates artificial smoke, etc. can be turned on. And in order to enhance the realism of a particular situation, worked out in the course of classes, trainings take place in places with different reliefs, in a confined space, while the student can be blindfolded, and before practicing protective techniques, offer a long-term performance of extremely tedious exercises. Full contact sparring ("Strike and Fight") is practiced to familiarize trainees with the stress that occurs during a real fight. And already in the first lessons, the second fundamental principle of Krav Maga is taught - in a real fight there are no rules.
Thirdly, part of the training is to develop the ability to assess the potential danger of the situation that has arisen, the pros and cons of the terrain even before the start of the fight. People are taught different types of influence (by word or deed) to avoid violence.
Krav Maga originated in ancient times in Israel. No, this system was developed by Imi Lichtenfeld (Imi Sdeor) in Czechoslovakia and Hungary around 1930, combined the most simplified techniques of boxing, karate, jiu-jitsu and was intended to protect the Jewish community of Bratislava from the Nazis. After some time, Lichtenfeld moved to Palestine and became a teacher of hand-to-hand combat in the Hagan. From 1948 to 1964, Imi was the chief hand-to-hand combat instructor at the IDF's Combat Training School. After his retirement, he made a lot of efforts so that Krav Maga could be studied not only by the military, but also by civilians.
Krav Maga is based on a certain philosophical system. For this self-defense system, of course, certain principles of building training and behavior of sparring partners are characteristic, however, the basis of Krav Maga is scientific research of human reflexes (both the attacker and the defender). It is these movements, brought to automatism, that make it possible to master Krav Maga in record time. This system is not intended for spiritual self-improvement, its main task is to ensure survival in any situation.
Krav Maga is a martial art. In fact, this self-defense system does not provide for adherence to clearly defined rules (after all, street fights are not conducted according to the rules), allows the replacement of some stands and techniques with others, does not prohibit, but on the contrary, encourages the use of various items for self-defense and does not rely on any philosophical system. It is more correct to give this system a slightly different definition: Krav Maga is a tool that allows you to solve problems of various kinds. This system allows a soldier to very quickly master the basics of hand-to-hand combat, a policeman can quickly disarm and immobilize a bandit, a woman can effectively resist a rapist, and a bodyguard can ensure the client's safety as efficiently as possible. At the same time, the tasks and techniques used change, but the basic principles ("recoiling", "threat point") remain unchanged.
Krav Maga is either a mixture of various techniques of other martial arts, or an ordinary, unremarkable hand-to-hand combat. This opinion takes place because, as you know, Imi Lichtenfeld was engaged in boxing, jiu-jitsu and karate. Therefore, the conclusion suggests itself - the system he created is a "mix" of the above fighting styles. However, this conclusion is not entirely correct. In fact, the Krav Maga, created for the needs of the army and the police, was not designed for an experienced fighter, but was intended to be studied by ordinary untrained people. Moreover, it was created not by borrowing techniques (although some elements of boxing or jiu-jitsu in Krav Maga are quite recognizable), but by developing theoretical principles on which the motor base was imposed (stands, movements, strikes, pain controls). Therefore, we can confidently assert that Krav Maga resembles karate or jujitsu only outwardly, at the level of the motor base it is a completely original system, the result of long-term scientific research of modern specialists. In addition, the presence of specific, easily recognizable techniques characteristic of this self-defense system should be mentioned. Other "remakes", like the usual hand-to-hand, have no such "crowns" (features).
Krav Maga is a collection of "unworthy" techniques that are prohibited by the rules of other martial arts. Indeed, in training, they study blows to the groin, eyes, throat, Adam's apple, allowing you to quickly disable the enemy. But the above methods do not form the basis of Krav Maga. It's not a secret for anyone that any, even the most effective, technique may fail (the aggressor is quite capable of blocking the blow), and an ordinary fight will begin, in which your task is to survive. It is precisely the ability to correctly assess the situation, not to get confused, not to succumb to panic that Krav Maga teaches by practicing certain combinations of technical actions to a conditioned reflex. Punches, defense techniques, methods of freeing from a grip, painful controls are practiced by students to automatism - only in this case, in a real battle, they will have a chance to win.
There is no sparring in Krav Maga. It is a completely erroneous opinion - after all, only in sparring can you effectively work out certain situations that may arise in a real fight. That is why sparring partners are equipped in a special way, and in some schools full contact sparring is provided.
There are no competitions in Krav Maga, and instructors of this system do not participate in fights without rules, which means that it is not so effective. This is not so - the effectiveness of this self-defense system has been repeatedly tested in real combat situations. The absence of a public demonstration of strength at the competition indicates, rather, that those who master the art of Krav Maga do not seek to prove their superiority to someone. This system is not designed to win sports, its purpose is to ensure human survival.
All Israeli foreign intelligence officials know Krav Maga. In fact, Mossad (Mossad letafkidim meyuhadim - Institute of Intelligence and Special Tasks) does not study hand-to-hand combat. Krav Maga was created for the needs of other departments - the Israel Defense Forces ("Tsakhal"), police, border guards, counterintelligence officers ("Shabaka") and special forces ("Duvdevan", "Mistaaravim", etc.).
In Israel, all soldiers studied Krav Maga. It should be noted that the Israel Defense Forces is divided into two parts - "kravi" (combat troops) and "jobniks" (workers' troops), whose training is very different. Those caught in the "job workers" undergo an accelerated 90-day course of study (and only three lessons are allocated to study Krav Maga) and serve in the deep rear. "Kravi" are trained more thoroughly - after all, they are the ones who take part in military operations directed against bandit formations and terrorist groups. In combat troops, the soldiers thoroughly master the Krav Maga, but getting into the Kravi is not so easy. Firstly, a person must volunteer, and secondly, he must meet certain requirements, etc.
Krav Maga will help you win any battle. Indeed, mastering this art significantly increases the chances of winning a fight. However, it should be borne in mind that in real life, invincible fighters do not exist. Therefore, the Krav Maga instructor, demonstrating, for example, the technique of releasing the grip from the back of the neck, necessarily warns the students that this kind of grip is extremely dangerous, it may well lead at least to loss of consciousness, and, as a result, you may not have time to free yourself. Studying Krav Maga, a person is freed from illusions, getting the most complete idea of the strength and unpredictability of blows inflicted in a real fight. And instead of the desire to gain invincibility, another desire appears in the heart - to survive. And in this case, Krav Maga significantly increases your chances - but nothing more.
There is no variety of styles in Krav Maga. Completely erroneous opinion. It is enough just to list the names of organizations promoting and developing Krav Maga: "International Krav Maga Federation" by Eyyal Yanilov, "Krav Maga Association of America" by Darren Levin, "Federation European Krav Maga" by Richard Dueb, "Israel Krav Maga Association" by Haim Gidon. There are also author's styles (Krav Maga Lieven and Maor), and in Italy "fitness Krav Maga" is extremely popular.
Krav Maga is just a well-promoted brand that Israelis can make good money on. Indeed, teaching Krav Maga you can earn money, which is what many instructors of this system do (by the way, not only Israelis, but also residents of other countries). It should be borne in mind that Krav Maga is extremely popular all over the world, since it has been tested in many real skirmishes. And it's not a sin to pay for an effective tool for ensuring personal safety.