Kidney cyst

Kidney cyst

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A kidney cyst is a fluid-filled mass. But you need to know that the complications that a cyst can give are quite dangerous - it can be suppuration, rupture of the cyst, the development of a tumor.

The cyst is acquired and congenital. The cyst is most often detected by ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs. A kidney cyst is a fairly common kidney disorder. A simple kidney cyst is more common in men. Abnormalities such as dermoid cyst, spongy kidney, and multicystic kidney are rare.

A kidney cyst has no pronounced symptoms. Such situations are not uncommon. In this case, a kidney cyst is usually detected by ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs.

A simple solitary kidney cyst forms on the surface of an organ. In the depths of the renal tissue, such a cyst (it is single) is very rare. The shape of this cyst is oval oval ooze round. An acquired cyst can occur with the following diseases. These are pyelonephritis, tuberculosis or kidney tumor, as well as urolithiasis. The reason for the formation of a kidney cyst is the fact that the renal tubule is blocked. As a result, urine accumulates in the tubule (which cannot be excreted from the kidney). This leads to the fact that the renal tubule expands, it can reach large sizes - a cyst (fluid formation) appears. The cyst exerts a compressive effect on the renal tissue located around it (with an increase in size, the cyst also compresses the pelvis), as a result of which the blood supply to the renal tissue is disrupted. This process may be accompanied by a state of arterial hypertension. If the cyst has reached a large size, then it can be easily injured, which can lead to its rupture.

Pain in the lumbar region is characteristic of a kidney cyst. The pain can be of different intensity, in addition, if the cyst is small, then its presence in the body may be invisible. While a large cyst can lead to chronic and acute pain, especially if it compresses the renal pelvis. In such a situation, a violation of the outflow of urine is likely (which may contribute to the development of pyelonephritis). A large cyst is felt through the anterior abdominal wall.

Ultrasound examination is the basis for the diagnosis of kidney cysts. Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity is an important stage in the examination of the patient, but not the only one. In addition to him, the passage of excretory urography, scintigraphy is prescribed. The renal arteries can be examined by contrast; in some cases, computed tomography is performed.

For solitary kidney cysts, it is not possible to determine definite clinical signs. A simple cyst does not have them. There are often cases when a simple cyst is detected, so to speak, by accident. Examination in connection with completely different diseases reveals a solitary cyst of the kidney. However, some symptoms can still be identified. This is the possible appearance of pain in the lumbar region (if pain occurs, then, as a rule, it is pulling in nature), hypertension, as well as the possibility of probing a cyst (even the patient himself is able to detect it). The pain tends to intensify after physical exertion on the patient's body. Hypertension - that is, high blood pressure - is more likely if the cyst is large. When a cyst is located inside an organ, hypertension can also develop.

Kidney cyst and polycystic kidney disease are two completely different diseases. As you know, polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disease. This disease is characterized by the presence of multiple cysts in the kidney tissue. In addition, polycystic kidney disease affects both kidneys of the human body, the likelihood of polycystic kidney disease is approximately the same in both women and men - the disease does not reveal itself immediately, but at about the age of 30, when the picture of the disease is most developed. Kidney cysts are more benign than cysts in polycystic disease. This disease can be acquired at any time in life, it can affect only one kidney.

The kidney solitary cyst must be surgically removed. As a rule, this is not entirely true. If a simple kidney cyst has reached a large size, then the patient undergoes a percutaneous puncture of the cyst - this method is the most gentle for the patient, it avoids open (abdominal) operations. Percutaneous puncture of a kidney cyst is the removal of the contents of the cyst. The patient is also injected into the cyst cavity with special medications - the goal is to prevent the possible risk of re-recurrence of the disease. However, if a solitary cyst exerts a compressive effect on organs adjacent to the kidney, then the patient may be offered surgical treatment. In this case, its essence lies in the direct removal of the kidney cyst, the walls of which are excised, and, according to many experts, the sooner such an operation is performed, those are better for the patient, since the kidney will be able to quickly restore its functionality.

Percutaneous puncture of the kidney cyst is performed using a special needle. The patient lies down in the indicated position on his stomach, he is given local anesthesia. In cases where the cyst is localized on the surface of the organ, the puncture is carried out with a specially designed needle. The entire procedure is monitored using an ultrasound machine or computed tomography. The specialist determines exactly where the cyst is, after which he inserts the needle to the cyst cavity. Then its contents are deleted.

Sclerotherapy is an obligatory stage in carrying out percutaneous removal of the contents of the kidney cyst. Sclerotherapy itself is the introduction of certain medications directly into the cyst cavity. After their introduction, sclerosis is caused and the subsequent contraction of the kidney cyst. In most cases, 95% ethyl alcohol is injected into the cyst cavity, however, medical studies show a positive result when antiseptic solutions, alcohol in combination with antibacterial drugs are injected into the cyst cavity, and some other. To determine the required volume of the drug injected into the cavity of the kidney cyst, it is necessary to establish the initial volume of the cyst - a fourth of this volume will be equal to the required volume of the drug injected (less than 25% is ineffective). Whatever drug is used, it is administered for a specific period of time (not forever). Usually this is an interval of five to twenty minutes. After the required time has elapsed, the solution is removed from the cyst cavity. Medical practice shows that without sclerotherapy accompanied by puncture of the kidney cyst, the disease does not recur only in 10-20% of cases, that is, in the future, the disease reappears.

Percutaneous puncture of the kidney cyst gives one hundred percent guarantee of getting rid of the disease. To be more precise, the probability of completely getting rid of the disease varies from 75% to 100% (different authors give different estimates).

Percutaneous puncture of the kidney cyst may not always be performed. In general, only 8% of patients with this disease require treatment at all. The question of the need for treatment arises in the following cases. These include hemorrhage into the cavity of the cyst (resulting in pain), the appearance of blood in the urine, impaired urine outflow, renal failure, the development of pyelonephritis, etc. if the puncture of the cyst does not entail a risk to the structures surrounding the kidney. The rest of the cases require surgical intervention.

Dermoid cyst of the kidney is extremely rare. This is a cavity formation. The cavity of this cyst may contain adipose tissue, hair and even teeth - such a cyst is characterized by the presence of tissue elements uncharacteristic for this area. Typically, a dermoid cyst is a solitary mass. The shape is round, often not quite correct. The size of the dermoid cyst varies from a few millimeters to several centimeters. A cyst is usually not painful and can be detected many years after it appears. A dermoid cyst is equally likely to occur in both men and women. It is rather difficult to diagnose this type of cyst, since it does not give pronounced symptoms (it is often detected many years after its formation). Computed tomography in the case of diagnosing a dermoid cyst is the most informative method. The cyst is treated surgically. She is benign.

Spongy kidney is a rare disease. It is somewhat more common in boys. A spongy kidney is a developmental anomaly in which many small cysts are localized deep in the kidney tissue. As a rule, the lesion with this anomaly extends to both kidneys, but may not cover the entire organ, but only part of it. The spongy kidney does not manifest itself in any way for a long period of time. This anomaly can be detected by performing an excretory urogram. Thanks to her, a large number of cavities are found in the medulla of the kidney. A spongy kidney can cause a complication in the form of urolithiasis, in which small stones form in the renal cups. Possible signs of this anomaly (which are not always expressed) are the appearance of blood in the urine and pain in the lumbar region. The spongy kidney itself does not require specific treatment, but it is necessary when complications develop. In some cases (when an infection joins the anomaly and pyelonephritis develops), the kidney may be removed.

Multicystic kidney disease is a rare abnormality. Indeed, the incidence of multicystic kidney disease is approximately 1% of all developmental anomalies of this organ. As a rule, multicystic kidney disease is a unilateral disease (that is, it affects only one kidney). The development of bilateral multicystosis is rarely compatible with human life. Most often, the disease occurs in boys. Typically, the anomaly extends to the left kidney. For multicystic kidney disease, complete disappearance of renal tissue is characteristic. It is replaced by cystic formations (filled with fluid), due to which the kidney greatly increases in size - it can be felt, its surface is uneven.

Mutistic kidney disease is treated surgically. This is the only way. The operation can be performed urgently when it comes to suppuration of cysts. The rupture of the cyst in the pumpkin is the basis for emergency surgery. The essence of the operation is to remove the kidney affected by multicystosis.

Watch the video: USMLE Renal 14: Renal Cysts and Cancer (July 2022).


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