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The Republic of Iran is located in the southwest of Asia. The history of statehood here goes back more than five thousand years. Iran is a very important state in terms of its influence in the Islamic world and Asia. It is one of the most developed countries in the region with rich oil and natural gas reserves. The population of Iran is about 78 million people, according to this indicator, as well as area, level of GDP, the country holds 17th place in the world. During the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the monarchy was overthrown here and a republic was proclaimed.
Today Iran haunts the world community. But an educated person is simply obliged to fight these myths.
In Iran, women are required to hide their face and body. When our tourists fly to Iran, they are warned that the liner will be divided into two halves. Women bring hijabs and long raincoats with them. But in Iran, they have long been out of fashion, and the veil is rarely worn - in government institutions or mosques. On the streets, most girls generally get by with a light scarf that covers their hair, because the head must be covered. Iranian women themselves wear hats out of habit. Many women have abandoned chadurs altogether. Yes, and on airplanes, women take seats next to men, while the fair half calmly flaunt in European-style clothes. Iranian women wear high heels, fashionable clothes, dye their hair and wear makeup. Jeans are popular with women of all ages. Daring clothing is discouraged in public places.
Iran is a very closed country. Once in this country, it is enough to glance at street advertising to debunk these myths. There are huge billboards on buildings, along roads and in transport. They say that large and world famous companies from Japan, China, South Korea, France and Poland are present on the local market. Even the American giants Microsoft and Hewlett Packard are represented in Iran. As you can see, this country is open to the whole world. And most of the major tour operators provide tours to Iran. After all, this is a country with a rich history that will be of interest to travelers.
Iran is a computer backward country. This is not true, Iran's computerization is at a fairly high level. Many foreign production programs even support Persian. And the prices for computer components are not sky-high, they are comparable to those in Moscow. The Internet is developing rapidly in the country, in large cities there are many Internet cafes where young people sit for hours. Providers are "famous" for blocking access to some resources, but we are mainly talking about overt pornography. And regular sites are available to all users.
Iran is a wild Arab country in which civilized life began only with the arrival of Europeans. For some reason, this is exactly what the Europeans think, who perceive the countries of the Near and Middle East as former French or English colonies. But Iran is a pretty unique country. Not only is it 4 times larger than France in area, but Iran is also one of those 7 non-European countries that have never been anyone's colonies. The name of the state literally means "land of the Aryans". This is the name that Shah Reza Pahlavi gave in 1935 to the Persian territories that remained with him after the destruction of the great empire. And the French and Germans found on the territory of the country the ancient city of Persepolis and the monuments of the great state that existed for another three thousand years called. It was in the Persian Empire that she was able to invent and then disseminate cuneiform writing, the Great Silk Road ran here, the fairy tales "A Thousand and One Nights" were written. The Persians learned to irrigate with canals, invented chess and air conditioning. They discovered methyl alcohol, created a part of algebra and geometry, invented zero. And the date December 25, which was considered the birthday of Zarathustra by Christians, was chosen as the Nativity of Christ. As you can see, a developed civilization existed here long before the European one. In Iran itself, they speak not Arabic, but Persian. This language belongs to the same Indo-European group as French.
Iran is closely associated with al-Qaeda and is involved in the 9/11 attacks. Al-Qaeda is a Sunni Salafist group. It originated in Saudi Arabia among the Wahhabis. This ideology defends the Arab tribal nature of Islam, which in principle contradicts the Shiite Islam prevalent in Iran. The religion in the country united the Imamites, who took Jafarism, the Sufi philosophy of Jafar al-Sadiq, as the basis of their faith. This trend affirms the family vision of Islam. At the heart of this approach is the veneration of the family and descendants, as well as the historical predecessors of Islam. This explains the rather tolerant attitude of the Shiites towards Christians and Jews. Salafism, like Saudi Arabia, has traditionally been the enemies of the authorities who ruled Iran since the emergence of the Shiite direction of Islam there.
Iran is ruled by a dictatorship. Iran is currently a theocratic republic. The country became the heir to the Persian Empire. Over time, the transition from an absolute monarchy to a traditional one, and in 1951, to democracy, took place in a natural way. But the government of Mohammed Mossadegh lasted only until 1953, it was overthrown by the coups with the support of the CIA. The fact is that the Iranian government has decided to nationalize the oil industry. The next oil crisis in 1979 led to a second revolution that spawned the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1981. It has a Senate, Legislature and Supreme Religious Council. Over time, the country's constitution was changed so that the power of the didera, the head of the Supreme Religious Council, was strengthened. The new theocratic regime retained all the rights of citizens inherent in democracy. People have the right to vote, access to education and health care, freedom of movement, and universal suffrage. Although the key institutions of the republic remained (senate and parliament), the role of the President diminished. Political parties must have a certain religious sense, approved by the clergy. Personal freedoms have diminished slightly, and the dress code has appeared. But all the same, there can be no talk of dictatorship in the country.
Iran is an aggressive and barbaric country, dangerous to its neighbors. Having studied the history of Iran, one can see that the country has not attacked anyone over the past two hundred years. But it is surrounded by numerous American and French military bases. True, one should not forget that over the past 30 years Iran has been pursuing a rather active military policy in the region, providing assistance to those countries that suffered from Israel. We are talking about Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon. That is why it is believed that an invisible psychological and propaganda war is being waged between Iran and the West. One side uses the barbs of its president and the alliances made in the Middle East, while on the other side the United States acts with its propaganda machine in the form of Hollywood and economic sanctions. Thus, America prevents Iran from accessing the financial instruments MasterCard and Visa, does not allow it to join the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Not far behind the US and Europe, where rumors are spreading about terrible executions in wild Iran by hanging or stoning. So the aggressive image of Iran in the eyes of the public is largely fabricated. It seems that in this country the same America does not look peaceful in any way.
Iran lives in isolation. It should be noted that in recent years, the attitude of the world community in relation to. And George W. Bush also played a part in this. Indeed, it is thanks to his actions and military campaigns that Iraq and Afghanistan became Shiite states, which eventually became Iran's allies. And the “Arab Spring” that swept across the region contributed to the coming to power of regimes friendly to Tehran. It should also be remembered that Iran ranks second in the world in gas production and third in oil exports. This fact, willy-nilly, makes you respect this country, because too many depend on it. Iran is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, where, in addition to it, there are about 80 other countries. This association does not recognize the hegemony of the United States and Europe, which is expressed in respect for China and Russia. They prefer to have a strong and influential neighbor in the form of Iran than the presence of another US and Israeli ally on their borders.
Iran dreams of destroying Israel. The following words are attributed to President Ahmadinejad, then translated into French: "Israel should have been erased from the world map." But in fact, the Iranian representative never says that. Simply speaking at an anti-Zionist conference, he, quite appropriately for such a meeting, declared that "we must rid the planet of such a scourge as Zionism." But this is a completely different matter. There are indeed extremist parties in the country that advocate a war with Israel. But only their opinion is not shared by the Iranian authorities, and such views are not popular in the social and political life of the state. Everyone understands that the war will not bring anything good.
President Ahmadinejad, the head of state, is practically a sectarian. Do not take this politician as an outrageous religious fanatic. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is a Ph.D. from the prestigious Tehran University. From 2003 to 2005, he served as mayor of the multimillion-dollar capital. This is not at all the fool that the media make him out to be. Rumors about his proximity to the Khojatie sect, similar to Scientologists, are spread by Western intelligence services, as well as information about the involvement of the Iranian authorities in some terrorist attacks. There is no real evidence for this.
Iran wants to create an atomic bomb. To date, there is no evidence to support this claim. At one time Iran signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and even under the protocol, where he alone left his signature under pressure from the West. In 2006, the country's spiritual leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, said in one of his speeches that the use of nuclear weapons would be contrary to the ideology of the Islamic Republic. Iran is constantly visited by the IAEA commissions, which in no way can connect the peaceful nuclear program with military goals. Most likely, the problem is of an economic nature, because neither Europe nor the United States want a competitor with uranium enrichment technologies. After all, then this substance will be sold to China and India at lower prices than is now accepted. But Iran is developing dynamically, and most of the population is under 45 years old. So energy issues are very important for this country. Iran's nuclear program should not scare anyone, because the same West supplies Israel with nuclear missiles, and technologies were once provided to the Gaddafi regime, which was then overthrown by the Europeans. There is another interesting but little known fact. In the 1970s, Iran lent Europe, and specifically France, an amount of 1 billion francs. The money was earmarked for the construction of the Piertall complex, which became the backbone of the European nuclear project. Without a loan from Iran, France may never have become a nuclear state at all. Iran itself already owns 10% of European nuclear technologies, which the country has never used. As a result, the loan was never returned.
Iran wants to attack Europe and has the ability to do so. Iran is indeed one of the world leaders in the development and production of medium and long-range missiles. But there is simply no reason to attack Europe. The Iranian government has a powerful diplomatic service that is an alternative to military intervention. Once again, the fears of Europeans were confirmed when a myth appeared about a certain rocket that flies three thousand kilometers to France, and no one can detect and shoot it down.
If Iran is attacked, it will have nothing to defend with. Among all the professional land armies in the world, Iran has one of the largest. In addition to 500,000 trained soldiers, the same number of militias can be armed. This makes it possible to call on the defense of Iran up to a million people in the ground forces alone. But there are still reservists, the Air Force, the Navy. Iran is also one of the few countries that produce weapons. With all this, about 30% of GDP is allocated for the needs of the army. This allows the country to develop its own missile weapons. The Shahab and Kowsar ground-based anti-ship missiles are especially famous, in the production of which Russia, China and North Korea participated. Iran produces its own Zulfikar tanks and uses Russian T-72Cs, the country has its own combat aircraft (Shafagh and Azarakhsh attack aircraft), transports and helicopters. In addition, the army is equipped with modern electronic equipment. The most important thing is that Iran has a very strong fleet, the largest in the Persian Gulf. It includes Mowj-class frigates, MIG patrol boats, modern Noor and Tondar class submarines. Iranian rockets have already launched their own satellites into orbit. In addition, a whole army of educated engineers has been created in the country. Iran has a very good education, every year 150 thousand researchers leave it. All this makes the country very strong. Entering an open military conflict with Iran means a large number of victims and destruction, which the West is not ready to do.
Iran has created the autocracy of President Ahmadinejad, who is constantly trying to overthrow the progressives. It should be remembered that in fact the president is the second most important person in the country. Its primacy is formal; in fact, it belongs to a lifelong rahbar, a spiritual leader who has both powers and material resources. He is elected by the Council of Experts, who are themselves hired by direct voting. Ayatollah Khamenei has held the post of rahbar for the past 20 years. Many call Ahmadinejad a henchman, although the relationship between them is complicated.
In Iran, the autocracy of Khamenei, who decides who is president and who is not. The practice has developed in the country that Khamenei does not make decisions on his own. The spiritual leader is forced to constantly maneuver between clans, factions and coalitions. All that a rakhbat can do is block candidates he dislikes, which he periodically does. But the rabbat cannot control the course of the elections, much less correct their results.
Ayatollakratia has been established in Iran. According to this myth, there is a collective oligarchy of the Shiite clergy in the country, it controls all spheres of life. But in reality, the local political elite and the very oligarchic elite consists not only of clergy, but also of secular ones. At the same time, this environment is not monolithic, conflicts constantly flare up inside it. There can be no talk about purely religious or secular associations. There is neither a ruling party nor a single ruling party in the country. And the internal political enmity here is of a public nature. At one time, Khamene supported Ahmadinejad, but other high-ranking politicians and spiritual leaders supported his opponent.They are the ones who are trying to organize protests in Tehran. So we are not talking about any kind of monopoly on power.
There is a dictatorial regime in Iran, albeit it is not clear whose. It is customary in the West to accuse Iran of the presence of a dictatorship. But in the country there is no repression, no political police with its arbitrariness, no emergency regime. It's just that the Islamic regime quietly exists in Iran, which is very different from the usual liberal democracies. Yes, there are some restrictions here, everyday and socio-political, based on Islamic rules. But recently, the authorities are no longer so tightly controlling their citizens in this matter. Even during the harsh times of Ayatollah Khomeini's rule and the Iran-Iraq war (1979-1989), competitive elections were held in the country. And in the last 10-15 years a developed modern democracy has been established here, albeit an Islamic one. It is enough to study the election campaigns in the country to be convinced of this. In Iran, as in the West, the most zealous reformists and radicals are imprisoned and restricted in their rights. This is a natural measure of preserving the liberal democratic regime, so that Islamic democracy does not differ much from Western democracy in this respect.
In Iran, Islam has aggressively suppressed all other religions. Christians are afraid to visit this country, because it seems that people of other faiths are treated very badly there. Meanwhile, right in the center of Tehran, you can find the golden domes of the Orthodox Church. People pray here openly, not secretly in basements. There is even a shelter for the elderly at the church. It turned out that there are churches of other Christian denominations on the city streets. We are not talking about basements, but about large, spacious churches with beautiful architecture. At the same time, Christians openly wear pectoral crosses, in the country they are loyal to representatives of other religions. It’s hard to believe, but there was a place for synagogues in Tehran, despite the difficult relations between Iran and Israel. The Iranians themselves say they have complex feelings about Zionism and not as a Jewish people. Its representatives have lived here for several centuries. National and religious minorities receive not only freedom of their religion, but also seats in parliament. Zoroastrian temples are also active in the country, once this religion was the main one in Iran.