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Dreams are subjectively perceived images (visual, auditory) and sensations (gustatory, tactile, etc.) that arise in the mind of the sleeping person, and at this time the person most often does not know that he is sleeping and considers the dream to be an objective reality.
In ancient times, people believed that a dream is nothing more than a message from Higher beings (spirits, angels, gods, etc.), encrypted in the form of symbols and containing information about the future of the dreamer himself or his relatives or friends. In some cases, the information received in a dream related to the fate of an entire community, state or people.
Since the interpretation of dreams was a rather complicated matter, the interpretation of dreams was most often done by shamans, priests, or specially trained people. They used the information received from the dreamer not only to predict events in his life (or the lives of other people), but also to cure various physical or mental disorders of a person.
Today, scientists are actively investigating various aspects of sleep, both physiological and psychological. These studies not only form an idea of the true nature of dreams, but also help fight various sleep disorders (insomnia - lack of sleep, hypersomnia - pathological drowsiness, etc.).
Not only mystics and esotericists, but also scientists are engaged in the interpretation of dreams today. It really is. Dreams began to be investigated especially actively in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. (at the same time, philosophy, psychology and physiology developed rapidly). Most experts were inclined to believe that a dream is an incoherent set of images generated by impressions received in the waking state. The aforementioned images appear as a result of the weakening of the control of consciousness (occupied during sleep with processing and sorting information received during the day). From all of the above, the conclusion followed: since the pictures of dreams are chaotic, trying to interpret them in any way is meaningless.
However, some researchers took a different point of view. They believed that the appearance of certain dream images is due to certain reasons. For example, Henri Bergson (France) argued that dreams, although they are the result of an effect on the optic nerve, are of a deeper nature, and are closely related to the memory mechanism. Thomas Hobbes (England) believed that dreams are the product of various processes occurring in the human body (digestion, blood circulation, etc.) that affect the senses and cause the appearance of certain sensations (the so-called somatic theory).
Sigmund Freud came to the conclusion that the main function of a dream is to fulfill desires (mainly sexual and, most often, unconscious), which are suppressed by the mind during wakefulness. Moreover, according to the conclusions of the scientist, in dreams the sexual nature of a person's aspirations is by no means always clearly revealed - dreams most often have a completely innocent content (for example, playing with a child, contemplating objects of a strange shape, etc.).
Freud's student Carl Gustav Jung did not share the teacher's views on the content and subtext of dreams, and offered his own concept of dream interpretation. He suggested that in dreams, a person directly contacts the unconscious. But, since he does not know the language of symbols, with the help of which the subconscious is usually expressed, the information obtained in a dream is most often beyond the understanding of the individual.
The theory that dreams are a manifestation of hidden desires was first expressed by Sigmund Freud. Yes, Freud is the first Western scientist to substantiate this theory. However, even long before him, the opinion that dreams manifest desires that were suppressed by the mind during wakefulness was common among many peoples. For example, the Iroquois (North American Indians) believe that in the depths of the soul there are hidden desires that manifest themselves during sleep.
Modern psychotherapists argue that suppressing latent desires manifested in dreams can be detrimental to human health. However, this statement is by no means new. Both in antiquity and today, many peoples (the Iroquois in North America, the Senoi people in Malaysia, the African Ashanti tribe, etc.) had the point of view that dreams should not only be memorized, but also correctly interpreted in order to fulfill the desires of the soul, when suppressed, a person can manifest various kinds of mental disorders or physical illnesses. And dreams, in which the will of the deities are transmitted to worthy people, must be interpreted with special care, since a misunderstanding or failure to comply with the orders of higher beings can entail not only illness or death of the dreamer himself, but also considerable troubles for all members of the tribe, but then the whole planet.
So that other members of society do not suffer from the fulfillment of some desires (often aggressive ones), various methods of manifesting hidden spiritual aspirations were sought. For example, during the Onoharoya holiday, the Iroquois showed their dreams to one another in the form of a pantomime, which should have been solved and, if possible, performed (also in the form of a pantomime). And representatives of the Senoi people tried to resolve the emerging problems at an unconscious level, i.e. directly during sleep.
Dreams do not in any way affect a person's position in society. In ancient times, a different state of affairs took place - a dream seen by a shaman, a seer, and in some cases by mere mortals, could either elevate a person or lead to the loss of a high position in society. And even today there are peoples and tribes that, when appointing people to a particular position. are guided by information obtained in a dream (for example, the Ojibwe Indians (America) will not appoint a person to the position of a healer if he does not see a corresponding dream).
Dreams appear only during REM sleep. For a long time, it was believed that dreams are characteristic only for the stage of REM (or paradoxical) sleep, during which the sleeper's eyes move rapidly, the pulse and breathing become more frequent, and the skeletal muscles relax. In addition, the REM (rapid eye movement) phase is characterized by high activity of the parts of the brain that perform regulatory and conductive functions (for example, the pons varoli). However, according to the statements of modern scientists, dreams can also occur during slow wave sleep (orthodox or slow wave). Their only difference from dreams perceived during the REM phase is a shorter duration and a lower level of emotionality.
People are emotional, active, they have vivid and interesting dreams. This is often not the case. According to statistics, the more emotional and intense a person's daily life is, the calmer his dreams (in some cases, the above-mentioned active citizen does not see any dreams at all). Experts explain this by the fact that the type of dreams is in close connection with the activity of the human hormonal system. And if in everyday life, due to the frequent experience of various kinds of emotions and events, the endocrine system works very actively, releasing many different substances, during a night's rest, inhibitory processes are likely to turn on, and, as a result, there may be no dreams. If a person leads a measured, monotonous life, is in a depressed state of mind or in depression, his hormonal system works much weaker, supplying the body with not all the substances necessary for normal life. To compensate for the deficiency, the brain produces vivid dreams that cause strong emotional reactions and, as a result, the release of certain hormones. But there are also exceptions to this rule (for example, erotic dreams generated by hormonal activity during puberty).
Some people have dreams in black and white, others in color. This is not entirely true. The fact is that in a dream a person perceives the image of an object, and how bright and saturated the color will be depends on the state of health, character and temperament of the dreamer, as well as on the mood in which the sleeping person is. If a person is an optimist, healthy and full of energy, his dreams are likely to be bright and colorful. The dreams of an exhausted and tired person are painted in faded, almost black and white tones.
If an adult sees colored dreams, most likely he has some kind of mental disorder. Completely erroneous opinion. According to researchers, about 20% of the world's population sees colored dreams, and the contemplation of such dreams has nothing to do with the state of the human psyche (gender, age and profession are also not significant). And people involved in the interpretation of dreams are advised to pay attention to which colors a person most often dreams of, since each of the shades has its own meaning and can help in the interpretation of dreams. By analyzing the color scheme of dreams, you can get information about the character, temperament and various abilities of a person (for example, beige means indifference, brown means secrecy and aloofness, light blue means passivity (while bright blue symbolizes wisdom), yellow means mental strength, pink - love, etc.). You can also find out about the dreamer's state of health (green color, seen in a dream, means balance and health, lavender - signals possible problems with the respiratory system (for example, asthma), etc.).
Dreams are a source of inspiration. Moreover, according to representatives of some ethnic groups (for example, the Gola people (Africa), Tukuler (Senegal), Mistassini Cree (Northern Quebec), etc.), dreams can not only give help to shamans and healers, but also indicate new tricks and patterns artisans (carvers, weavers or embroiderers), as well as inspire musicians and singers to create and perform new melodies or songs. Moreover, Africans believe that in order to contemplate dreams that positively affect their art, the masters must establish a connection with the patron spirits, while the inhabitants of Quebec or Senegal just need to wait patiently for inspiration to visit them in one of their dreams. Dreams also became assistants to some European scientists. For example, Friedrich August Kekule (organic chemist from Germany) saw in a dream the formula of benzene (and it appeared before him in the form of a flaming snake biting its own tail), and Mendeleev dreamed of the final version of the table of periodic elements, on which the scientist had been working for a long time.
In order to interpret a dream, you just need to look in one of the dream books the meaning of one or another dreaming image. In fact, the interpretation of dreams is a much more complicated matter, since a dream book can only give certain options for interpreting dream symbols, and it is most likely that the person himself will have to interpret them and choose the one that most accurately describes certain manifestations of the unconscious. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that there is no single, common interpretation of this or that symbol for all people - for each person, the image from a dream is filled with a special, individual meaning.
The dreamer himself is quite capable of interpreting his own dreams. Yes, if a person has developed intuition, or if he spent a lot of time and effort comparing certain images from dreams with the state of his health before and after the dream, with subsequent events in his life, the lives of relatives and friends, with certain incidents in the life of society, etc. Otherwise, there is a high probability of interpreting the dream incorrectly, tempted by the opportunity to simply glean information about the meaning of a particular symbol from the dream book (the so-called "false interpretation"). Therefore, it is best to seek help from an experienced interpreter of dreams.
In order to correctly interpret a dream, you should restore in your memory as much detail as possible dream images. In some cases, it is not what exactly was dreamed that is of great importance, but what feelings and sensations this or that dream caused. Therefore, you should pay attention not only to the smallest details of the image, but also to your own mental reaction to the dream.
If in a dream a person experiences a feeling of heaviness and fear, while losing the ability to move, the brownie strangles, reports the trouble. This phenomenon (in some cases referred to as the "old witch syndrome"), accompanied most often by a whole set of rather unpleasant sensations (suffocation, complete or partial paralysis of the body, a feeling of someone else's hostile presence (which can either be visualized - a person sees ghostly silhouettes, or heard (steps ), or just feel intuitively) and heaviness in the chest area, unpleasant sounds, etc.) our ancestors explained by the influence of mythical creatures hostile to humans. In Russia, the brownie was blamed for everything; Muslims argued that all of the above were the tricks of the jinn; The Chuvash believed that such states were sent to people by the hostile mythical creature Vubar, etc.
However, modern scientists have found that the feeling of heaviness and fear, accompanied in some cases by the loss of the ability to move - one of the sleep disorders, called "sleep paralysis". This condition occurs most often during sleep on the back, most often in people 10-12 years old (with age, attacks of this kind usually disappear), and the risk group includes people who are uncommunicative (introverts), with a weak psyche, non-standard thinking and a high level of suggestibility. People with a strong psyche in a state of extreme fatigue can also experience an attack of sleep paralysis. According to the conclusions of experts, this state was experienced at least once in a lifetime from 20 to 40% of the world's population. This condition, although very unpleasant, does not cause any harm to the human body.
A dream about falling teeth promises illness or death of friends or relatives. Most often, the mentioned dream is interpreted as follows: if a tooth falls out without blood, a friend (acquaintance) will get sick or die, if a relative is with blood. According to Freud, this dream is a reflection of a latent or explicit desire for masturbation, which causes shame in a person. However, when interpreting the aforementioned dream, one should also take into account the physical condition of the dreamer's oral cavity. Indeed, in some cases, the subconscious mind signals us about malfunctions in our physical body, therefore, if a person often dreams of falling teeth, one should consult a dentist and check the condition of the teeth and gums.
Dreaming of war - to a quarrel. The mentioned dream can be interpreted in different ways. First, in some cases, dreams of hostilities are prophetic (for example, Jung's dreams of World War II). Secondly, according to the findings of dream researchers, men often dream of battle scenes and acts of violence before a heart attack (while women, before the next exacerbation of heart disease, dream about parting with a loved one). Thirdly, there are a considerable number of people who claim that the scenes of battles and destruction symbolize getting rid of something obsolete and obsolete, either in their worldview or in their way of existence.
To see a car in a dream - to a trip.Most often, dreams associated with vehicles (car, train, plane) are interpreted either as foreshadowing a long journey, or as promising pleasant (or unpleasant, if the vehicles mentioned break down, fall, etc.) changes in life. However, dream researchers claim that the car symbolizes the physical body, because if you dreamed that the car would not start, collapses on the move, cannot continue to move, etc. - pay close attention to your health.