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France (fr. France, Republique francaise), the official name of the French Republic is a state in Western Europe. the capital is Paris. It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean from the north and west, by the Mediterranean Sea from the south. It shares borders with Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco in the east, with Spain and Andorra in the south.
In addition, France has overseas territories in the Americas, Antarctica, West Indies, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Area 551 thousand sq. km. (with islands). Population 60.2 million. Over 76% of the living population is Catholic. The legislature is a bicameral parliament (National Society and Senate).
France is a nuclear country. This expression is correct, but not from the point of view of nuclear weapons. It's just that the share of electricity produced by nuclear power plants in France is 77% of the total. For comparison, let's say that in Sweden this share is 47%, in Korea - 38%, in the USA - 19%, and in Russia - 13%.
The French eat frogs. Although the French are called "frogs", but not all of them like to feast on these amphibians. Strange as it may seem, but the reason for the "addiction" of the French to frogs has, according to some researchers, quite clear historical roots. In many ways, this is the influence of the Hundred Years War between France and England, which gave rise to a severe food shortage. As a result, the French began to eat frogs, snails and came up with the now famous onion soup. For gourmets, frog legs are served in some restaurants.
Alsace and Lorraine are not French territories. For centuries, Alsace and Lorraine have been a stumbling block in relations between Germany and France. Over the course of history, German and French rulers have been in power here. The lands there are fertile, rich in iron and coal. Nowadays, the chemical industry, electronics and textiles are flourishing. In addition, Alsace has magnificent vineyards. Therefore, it is not surprising that these lands were a tasty morsel for the two great powers. The lands were originally part of Roman Gaul, later the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. In the XVII-XVIII centuries. they were conquered by France. However, after the Franco-Prussian war, part of the lands again ceded to Germany. In 1919, the Treaty of Versailles returned them to France. But during the Second World War, these lands were again occupied by Germany, after which the people were glad to be again under the protection of France. As a result of such upheavals, the population there became bilingual, in addition, French and German traditions were mixed.
France is a "cheese" country. About 400 types of cheese are produced in France. In prestigious restaurants, at the end of the meal, a plate of several varieties of cheese is always served, and the more varieties the better.
All French people are gourmets. I must say that the food culture in this country has always been at a very high level. There is always a place for the cult of food. The French can travel hundreds of kilometers to visit a small restaurant with their favorite cuisine. They are especially related to table setting and serving dishes. By the way, they have their own order of serving dishes. For example, for dinner, an aperitif is first served (this is an alcoholic drink - whiskey, gin and tonic, etc. with some snacks), and you can drink it not at the table, then 1-2 dishes that are introductory to the main ones and are called entre ... Then 1-2 main courses are served, followed by salad, cheeses, fruits and sweet dessert. For the French, dinner is much more important than breakfast and lunch. They often eat late at night (after 21:00), which refutes the theory that eating at night is harmful.
France was originally inhabited by the Celts. Man inhabited the territory of present-day France about 100 thousand years ago. The first settlers were the Gauls, who were indeed mostly of Celtic origin. They migrated there from the Rhine Valley around 1200 BC. About 50 AD they were conquered by the Romans.
Guiana was a French prison. Guiana is a French island. It was assigned to France in 1817 and was actually turned into a place of exile and hard labor. From 1852 to 1932, more than 70 thousand prisoners were sent there. In 1946, Guiana received the status of an overseas department, and in 1968 it became a launching pad for Arion launch vehicles.
France lost its land due to the partisans. The guerrilla war in Indochina (1946-1954) deprived France of Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia, and in 1962, after 6 years of war, Algeria gained independence.
There is a labyrinth of repentance in France. In France, labyrinths have always been very supportive. In Versailles, the hedge-shaped labyrinth was not only one of the most beautiful decorations, but also its hallmark. However, some labyrinths had a mysterious meaning. So the labyrinth of Chartres Cathedral really served as a road of repentance for believers. Those who repent barefoot or on their knees had to walk 150 meters to the center of the circle, without stopping their prayers.
On July 14, 1789, the French destroyed the Bastille. One of the most impregnable fortresses-prisons in France, Bastille, fell on July 14, 1789. According to legend, it was destroyed to the ground that day. In fact, nobody destroyed the Bastille; the decision to demolish it was made on July 16 by the city hall. It took three years to dismantle this impregnable abode of evil, and about 800 workers worked on it. Some of the stones were used to build the Bridge of Concord, and some were sold to a certain Palois, who made a good fortune on them - he cut paperweights from these stones and put them up for sale. Now on the site of the old prison there is a traffic circle with the Bastille Column in the center. Nowadays, July 14 is the great national holiday of the French. As a rule, a series of balls are held on this day: a large ball in the Tuileries, a ball for firemen, etc. In addition, a solemn military parade takes place on the Champs Elysees, and in the evening on the Champ de Mars there is a large fireworks display.
The Bagatelle Palace in the Bois de Boulogne was built in two weeks. The Bois de Boulogne is one of the historical sights of France. Bagatelle was built by Count d'Artois, brother of Louis XVI. The construction of the palace is associated with a bet that the count made with Marie Antoinette. By the terms of the bet, the count undertook to build a palace in two months in which the queen could be received with dignity. The architect Belange was hired to build the palace. The palace was built in 64 days and named Bagatelle (trinket). A magnificent park was created around the palace. Nowadays, the main feature of the park is flowers. The International Rose Competition is held here every year.
The guillotine is a French invention. In fact, the tool for separating the head from the body was known before, it was used in Europe in the XII century, in Italy, Germany and England. The creation of the guillotine is attributed to Joseph Iñas Guillotin, but in fact he only proposed a project for its use. The very same guillotine was invented by Dr. Louis. At first it was called "Louisette", but this name was soon forgotten. Hugo wrote about this confusion: "There are unhappy people in the world. Christopher Columbus could not give his name to the continent he discovered, Guillotin could not separate his own from the machine he invented."
Disneyland Paris is the largest amusement park in Europe. Disneyland France is really big, it is impossible to get around it in one day. Therefore, tickets here can be bought for 1, 2 or 3 days at once. The park consists of 5 parts:
- "Main street U.S.A" - 5 attractions;
- "Adventureland" - 6 attractions;
- "Discoveryland" - 9 attractions;
- "Fantasyland" - 13 attractions;
- "Frontierland" - 10 attractions.
There are 43 rides in total. And that's not counting all kinds of shops and restaurants.
Parisians don't like the Eiffel Tower. The tower was erected in 1889 for the 100th anniversary of the Great French Revolution. At that time, she caused the outrage of a huge part of the French. Many great leaders were against this absurd, at first glance, structure. Maupassant and Hugo wrote letters asking them to remove this monstrous structure from the streets of the city. It took 12,000 elements to assemble the openwork tower, and if it took a year and a half to lay the foundation, then it took only 8 months to build the tower itself. Nowadays, the tower plays the role of a TV tower. Note that views on this miracle have changed over the years. Nowadays, not a single person can imagine France without the peak of the Eiffel Tower.
French people don't like English. Maybe because of the long-term enmity between England and France, maybe for some other reason, but many French people really do not like English. Even a Frenchman who knows English can refuse to speak this language, or pretend not to know it.
When choosing a wine from the Bordeaux districts, you should pay attention to the name of the castle. In the districts of Bordeaux there are individual wineries - castles - chateau (chateau). Therefore, when choosing a wine, pay attention to the name of the castle. Even if the farms are located in the neighborhood and grow the same grape variety, their wine tastes different. Each chateau maintains its secrets, creates its own unique bouquet. Unlike Bordeaux, in the famous Burgundy there are winemaking societies - appellation. They can belong to several manufacturers.