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Formula 1 (English Formula One) or "Royal Formula" - the annual world championship in circuit auto racing on cars with open wheels. This type of car racing is extremely popular and is rightfully considered the most high-tech and expensive in the world.
The first regulations for the World Championship were formulated by the organizations participating in the European Grand Prix racing championship (20-30s of the last century). However, due to the Second World War, the introduction of the new regulations planned for 1941 was postponed. It was only in 1946 that the International Automobile Federation (FIA) finally formulated the Formula 1 rules, which came into force in 1947. In 1948, the Formula 2 class was added to Formula 1, and in 1950 - Formula 3. Initially, it was assumed that the world championship was intended for the "Formula-1" class, the championship of the continents - "Formula-2", for the national championships - "Formula-3".
The first Formula 1 World Championship was held in England at the Silverstone circuit in 1950. Until 1958, points were awarded only to pilots, and then to car designers. The Formula 1 World Championship consists of separate stages (Grand Prix), which are held in March-October from Friday to Sunday and consist of free runs, qualifications and races, with both individual pilots and teams competing. A season can consist of a varying number of Grand Prix (from seven (1950) to nineteen (2005)). The winner of the championship is revealed at the end of the year, the pilots are awarded the title of World Champion, and the team is awarded the Designers' Cup. In addition, there are unofficial prizes (the so-called "Bernie's" (in honor of Bernie Ecclestone, an English businessman who is in fact the head of Formula 1)) in the following nominations: "Best Newcomer", "Best Racer", "Best Track", " The choice of riders "(the winners are chosen by the pilots themselves).
Formula 1 is an ordinary sporting event, an interesting sight, nothing more. Of course, this type of racing is a very exciting sight, but one should not forget about the contribution of teams to the development of cars and cars in general. The original ideas of the designers of racing cars (for example, the traction control system) contribute to the development of mechanical engineering, but it should be noted that in recent years the role of Formula 1 as the initiator of progressive innovations in the automotive industry has slightly decreased. The fact is that in order to introduce some technical solutions, it will be necessary to make many changes in the design and methods of creating serial machines, in addition, the organizers of the series strive to reduce the costs of teams, which is sometimes a serious obstacle to the implementation of one or another engineering idea.
The Formula 1 Grand Prix lasts three days. This is generally true, but there is an exception. The Monaco Grand Prix lasts not three, but four days. Free rides take place on Thursday, and teams host parties and excursions on Friday.
The cars used in the races are provided by the sponsor. In fact, the team can only use the engine and tires of the manufacturer's partner, but the participants of Formula 1 must design and construct the car themselves. It should be borne in mind that the car must comply with the technical regulations and pass the impact test - this is monitored by the stewards of the International Motorsport Federation.
There is one driver per team in each Grand Prix. No, according to the rules, each team has two riders, and the coloring of the cars must match. If a team exhibits only one car or does not start at all, it is punished with a fine.
The cars are so fast that they are quite capable of driving even on the ceiling. This is not entirely true. Indeed, the speed of a car used in Formula 1 racing exceeds 300 km / h, therefore, the car is capable of generating a downforce exceeding its weight, i.e. could potentially roll across the ceiling. However, it should be borne in mind that the fuel tank and engine are designed taking into account the action of gravity, therefore they will not be able to work in an inverted position.
The fastest racing cars develop in Formula 1. The speed of unmodified cars on the oval of Formula 1 tracks is likely to be slightly lower than that of cars participating in the "Indy Car" (IndyCar Series - American racing series of cars with open wheels, after which the races were named) or NASCAR (National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing). However, the dynamics of acceleration (2 g), braking (4-5 g) and cornering (more than 4 g) in Formula 1 cars are really the best in the world.
Formula 1 race cars are made from the same materials that are used in the production of cars. Of course, most often, to create a racing car, a team makes do with ordinary alloys, however, if it is required by the safety of the rider or any other goals, advanced composite technologies used in the aerospace industry are used.
Changes in technical regulations and shorter tests can significantly reduce team costs. Not always. After all, if, as a result of changes in technical regulations, one or another material or composition is prohibited from using, the team has to spend a lot of time, effort and money to find a replacement. Large teams adapt to this state of affairs pretty quickly, but small teams would prefer stability. Banning tests is not an option either. Indeed, in order to ensure the maximum safety of the pilot and to predict the behavior of the car in a given situation, tests will have to be replaced by computer simulation, which again will have to spend a lot of money.
For a newcomer team to succeed, it is best to copy the design of the lead team's car. No, it's better to design the car yourself. Firstly, some parts of the car, hidden by the body, are simply invisible to an outside observer. Secondly, even very noticeable details work best only in combination with the rest; taken separately, they lose their significance and functionality. And, finally, from the outside it is quite difficult to determine all the structural features of the materials used, engineering solutions, etc.
Sometimes teams spend millions to increase the speed of a car by one tenth of a second. This is not true. Teams are not in the habit of throwing a lot of money down the drain for a little speed boost. Car designers will not engage in this or that project if, according to their calculations, it does not give the corresponding result and does not pay off with a win.
The main thing for a car designer is to choose the right number of keels. In fact, the choice between one or two keels is not such a big question. Of course, outwardly, cars with a different number of keels are very different from each other, but this does not have much effect on aerodynamics or on the characteristics of the car.
It is best to use kevlar fiber in the construction of the car - both the strength and safety of the car will increase many times over. Kevlar is used to create bulletproof vests, but this material is not always convenient for use in a racing car. Indeed, under the influence of ultraviolet light, Kevlar fibers become brittle, break, forming sharp fragments, which are a potential danger to the rider. Therefore, although this type of fiber is used, it is not so often.
The carbon fiber suspension breaks too easily, especially if the race is wheel-to-wheel. During races, cars sometimes collide with wheels. At the same time, an impact of such force, from which the carbon suspension breaks, will not be able to withstand the steel suspension either.
The camber angle of the cylinders should be as wide as possible, because in this case the center of gravity is lowered, ensuring maximum stability and maneuverability of the car. After all, the heaviest part of the engine is the crankshaft, which has to be lifted as the camber angle increases. Consequently, the center of gravity of the engine is higher. And working with such a motor is somewhat more difficult. Therefore, the designers consider the optimal camber angle of the cylinders 90?
The main thing for a car in Formula 1 is aerodynamics. No, the result depends mainly on the correct selection of tires and the quality of their grip on the track. Aerodynamics, though, is just as important as it provides downforce through the tires.
The wings are the source of downforce. This is not entirely true - the largest amount of downforce (more than a third) is produced by the bottom of the car. The remaining two-thirds are provided by the front, rear wing and diffuser (in the area of which the downforce is not regulated by the rules).
If the downforce is reduced by a third, the opportunity for overtaking will increase dramatically. Unfortunately, a decrease in downforce by thirty to forty percent from the side will be little noticeable and not particularly effective. For the changes to be really significant, the downforce should be reduced by ninety percent, but in this case, the pilots will have to reduce the speed of the cars so as not to lose control.
It is prohibited to use the ground effect in Formula 1 cars. This is not so - the effect arising from the proximity of the bottom of the car to the track is used. It is achieved through the use of end plates that reduce turbulence along the edges of the fenders, as a result of which the air flow pushes the car against the road. The only thing that is prohibited is sliding "skirts", which contributed to the effect of "sticking" the car to the track.
The lower the clearance, the better the aerodynamic performance. Misconception. In order to create low pressure and, as a result, downforce, there must be a certain space under the machine, by no means minimal.
All aerodynamic elements create downforce. This is not the case - after all, the aerodynamic parts form a single whole, with each performing specific functions when installed on the car. Therefore, some surfaces are designed to create lift - they are the ones that most effectively direct the air flow to the rear of the machine, creating the necessary stability.
Gear shifting is done manually by the riders. In fact, automatic transmissions in Formula 1 are prohibited - pilots use a semi-automatic. The driver uses a lever to indicate which gear to select. The machine's electronic control unit and hydraulics obey his orders, but a command that could damage the transmission will be canceled.
The Formula 1 cars retained the start control - the pilots simply removed the button to turn it on from the steering wheel, leaving the launch control system intact. After the FIA banned start control, the rider does everything manually, exercising control through hydraulics and electronics.
Only men participate in Formula 1 races. This is not entirely true - women competed in the World Championship in this sport. In the entire history of Formula 1, there were only five female drivers, and only one of them - Lella Lombardi, was able to score points (0.5 points for 6th place at the Spanish Grand Prix in 1975).
Formula 1 participants are superstitious. Indeed, pilots try to avoid "unlucky" numbers. That is why the numbers of cars until 1970 were only even (since in Europe, it is odd numbers that are most often considered to bring misfortune, for example, among Italians - the number 17). The car number 13 in the history of Formula 1 was used by only five riders (Divina Galitsa, Moises Solana, Cleve Trandell, Karel Gaudin de Beaufort, Moritz von Strachwitz), and two of them - only on training races. These days, race cars are not assigned a thirteenth number - immediately followed by a twelfth is a fourteenth.