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Fly is a common name for dipteran insects belonging to the family of real flies (Muscclassae) that live almost all over the Earth. The body (2-15 mm long) is dark, less often yellow or with a metallic sheen (blue or green), covered with hairs and bristles. About 5000 species are known. Widely distributed in all parts of the world. They feed on plant sap, decaying organic matter, manure, human feces; some are predators; some species are bloodsuckers.
The majority lay eggs (up to 2 thousand eggs during a lifetime); viviparity of larvae is less common. Larvae develop in decaying organic matter, manure, less often in living tissues of plants and animals; in some species, the larvae are predators (they feed mainly on the larvae of kolivorous flies) or parasitize locusts and stinging hymenoptera.
More than 50 synanthropic species (housefly, market fly, flies, etc.) are carriers of pathogens of infectious diseases in humans and animals (cholera, dysentery, some eye diseases, anthrax, trypanosomiasis, etc.). Sometimes fly larvae cause myiasis in humans and animals, some are herbivorous, harm cultivated plants (cabbage, onion, beet, sprout flies, etc.). The fight against synanthropic flies is based on strict adherence to sanitary and hygienic rules in populated areas. Treatment of premises and breeding areas with various insecticides is very effective.
The fly is a social insect. That is unlikely. Unlike bees, flies do not know how to communicate with each other, and they do not take care of their offspring, like ants, since their children are born when their parents have died long ago.
Flies are very prolific. For 2.5 months of life, a house fly lays from 600 to 2 thousand eggs. True, not all of the flies will then appear and not all of the individuals that have appeared will survive to reproductive (30 hours of life) or the age of oviposition (9 days after fertilization). So everything is relative.
Horsefly (Tabanus) is not a fly. No matter how it is! A large, buzzing, scary fly that feeds on the blood of animals and humans. In the villages, it often annoys large and small ruminants. It inhabits near water, in the forest zone, steppes and deserts. Only female adult horseflies drink blood in order to be able to lay eggs. Males feed on the nectar of flowers. It is curious that horseflies fly at a speed of more than three times the speed of all familiar houseflies.
Flies are carriers of the infection. Even house flies do not disdain carrion, let alone the rest. The special structure of the legs and jaws of flies facilitates the transfer of eggs of various helminths, causative agents of tuberculosis, plague, poliomyelitis, cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery and many, many other terrible and unpleasant diseases by this insect species.
House flies live only at home. In the wild, they really have a hard time. They are mercilessly exterminated, both by the cold and by people, and by birds that prowl day and night in search of food. Scientists have found that in the wild, most houseflies do not live for 3-6 days.
Flies do not see food. Or they see, but very rarely, since their special eyes are not adapted to gazing at objects. Flies also most often cannot find food by smell. One thing remains - by the fly-poke method, walking here and there, bumping into food and identifying it with special taste sensors located on the paws.
A fly can be caught by sneaking up behind it. A common misconception. The fly's eyes are designed in such a way that it can even look back. Therefore, if you really want to catch a fly, be honest with nature - come from the front. You look, running away from you, the fly by inertia of flight will fall directly into your palms.
Flies do not pose a mortal danger to humans. Depends on the region where you meet them. For example, African flies are capable of carrying the immunodeficiency virus from one person to another in their saliva. This is due to the fact that, unlike mosquitoes, the fly uses two tubes - one for sucking blood and the other for injecting saliva. Biting the next object, the fly regurgitates a small part of the blood taken from the previous victim into its wound. Ask, where are so many HIV-infected people in Africa from? .. Yes, at least from the same chimpanzees that flies bite no less often than you and me.
A person cannot expect anything good from flies. Not true. Drosophila flies are successfully used by scientists for a wide variety of experiments, and chitin, from which the protective covers of flies are made, is modified into chitosan, which is an excellent wound-healing drug. Carrion-destroying meat flies play an important sanitary role in nature.