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At all times, a person strived for stability, tranquility and comfort, making a lot of efforts to create a working environment in the office, comfort in the house, an atmosphere of harmony, detachment, merging with nature in the country. And, nevertheless, many external factors can destroy the fruits of many years of work in a few minutes, and sometimes pose a threat to the life of the owner of an apartment (country house) or office workers.
Of all the elements tamed by man, fire most often turns from friend to enemy. A fire can occur completely unexpectedly, the causes of fire are extremely diverse - from the inept handling of young children with matches to a short-circuited wire or an exploded gas cylinder. But the result is most often the same - fire and smoke freely occupy the premises, without encountering worthy obstacles on the way of their victorious march.
How to minimize the impact of a possible fire? In addition to installing a fire alarm (which is not always the case in a city apartment, and even more so in a dacha), fire doors can help you, which can hold the flame for a long time, giving the owners and the firefighter who arrived at the scene to eliminate the fire that has arisen. There are many misconceptions and myths about fire doors that we will try to debunk.
There is no glass in fire doors. Ordinary, fragile and sensitive to high temperatures, glass in doors of this kind is really not used. But laminated fire-resistant glass may well be used. Fireproof glass made by gluing 3-4 tempered glass, the space between which is filled with fireproof gel, has the same fire resistance limit as a fireproof door. Indeed, in a fire, the glass is heated not entirely, but layer by layer, withstanding the effects of fire for the stated time. Moreover, glasses of this kind are extremely impact-resistant.
Fire doors must be made of metal. In fact, there are fire doors made of wood, the frame of which is made of fire-resistant composite material, and the door itself is filled with fire-resistant basalt wool. In addition, the solid pine wood door frame and fire-taped sash provide additional protection against flames. The fire resistance of such doors is EI30 (30 minutes) or EI60 (60 minutes). It should be borne in mind that fire doors made of wood have one indisputable advantage: in case of emergency (in the event of a strong fire), it is easier to break them down, thereby opening access to the premises along with firefighters.
Iron fire doors should be made of thick metal. Doors of thick steel are made in the case when, in addition to fire resistance, the product is required to be bulletproof and resistant to burglary. In other cases, for the manufacture of fire doors, thin sheet cold-rolled steel is used. After all, it is a metal structure of this kind (created by the bent-welded method) that accumulates a minimum of heat and is capable of resisting the effects of fire for a long time. In addition, the light weight of the door leaf protects the structure from sagging and deformation.
The more expensive door has the highest fire resistance rating. Not necessary. Often, the excessively high price of fire doors does not indicate the high quality of the product, but only serves as an indicator of the imperfection of equipment and technologies. Small manufacturing companies that do not have the funds to purchase modern machine tools and have to pay extra, for example, to locksmiths for work that could be done on a punch press in a matter of seconds and with much lower financial costs, etc. ...
Any lock will work for a fire door. This is not true. Doors of this kind should have a lock equipped with a latch and a lever handle, supplemented with a self-closing system (door closer). If the fire door is located on the escape routes, it is sometimes necessary to install an anti-panic system lock with a push-bar handle or with a lever handle. In any case, it should be remembered that only locks that have passed the appropriate tests and provided with the necessary expert opinion should be inserted into fire doors.
You can make a fire door yourself. Indeed, for quite some time, the fire resistance of some doors has been improved by upholstering them with metal sheets. This procedure could well be done independently, although the quality and aesthetics of the resulting design left much to be desired. But, according to modern fire standards, fire doors are classified as products subject to mandatory certification.
Manufacturing of fire doors is licensed. This type of activity does not imply a license, but certification is needed. According to the technical specifications, a certificate for the manufacture of fire doors is issued to the manufacturing plant based on the results of product tests carried out by a special testing laboratory accredited in the certification system in the field of fire safety.
Fire doors of any size can be produced. No, the dimensions of fire doors are regulated quite strictly - such a design can be 10% larger or 30% smaller than the size specified in the Fire Safety Certificate. If the opening requiring the installation of a fire barrier is much larger or smaller, it is filled, respectively, with a fire gate or a fire hatch.
When installing fire doors, the gaps remaining between the opening and the structure after installation can only be sealed with fire-resistant mineral wool or cement mortar. Indeed, for quite a long time, only the above materials were used to seal fire openings, which created many difficulties (after all, it takes quite a lot of time to cut mineral wool of the required size and dilute the cement mortar). But progress does not stand still, and modern installers prefer to use polyurethane fire-resistant polyurethane foam for sealing gaps.
The manufacturer can make a fire door of any design (for example, according to an individual drawing). Unfortunately, this is not the case. It is quite understandable that the customer wants to get fireproof doors that fit the designer's project or correspond in appearance to other doors installed in the room. However, it should be remembered that fire doors are manufactured in accordance with the technical conditions specified in the Fire Safety Certificate. Therefore, neither the design nor the equipment of this kind of doors can be changed.