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Animals, one of the two main groups of the world of living things (the other group is plants). All animals are heterotrophic organisms, that is, among unicellular organisms there are forms (for example, euglena), as if transitional in the type of metabolism between animals and plants, combining heterotrophic metabolism with autotrophic ones.
Active mobility is also characteristic of many animals; some of them (for example, squid, dolphins, cheetahs, swifts) have the ability to move rapidly in water, on land or in the air.
Animals are divided into 2 main groups with different levels of organization: protozoa (sarcodes, flagellates, sporozoans, cnidosporidia, ciliates) - unicellular organisms; all other types of animals are multicellular.
The cells that make up their bodies are qualitatively (morphologically and physiologically) differentiated and form various tissues and organs. As the organic world developed, the structure and functions of animals became more and more complicated - the motor, digestive, excretory and reproductive, respiratory, circulatory systems, as well as the nervous system and sensory organs arose.
Adaptations appeared that ensure the biochemical constancy of the internal environment, special complex forms of animal behavior developed, for example, mating dances, games with insects, birds, and mammals. About 1.5 million currently existing animal species are known.
16 types are generally accepted: protozoa, sponges, archaeocyates (extinct), intestinal, lower worms, molluscs, articulate, prosopygia, camptozoans, subaxony, brachiopods, pogonophores, echinoderms, bristle-maxillary, hemichordate, chordates (includes the subtype A significant number of the listed types of animals are found mainly in the seas.
The camel withstands longest without food. His record is easily beaten by a male emperor penguin, this penguin can go without food for up to 130 days.
Camels accumulate water in their humps. Camels store fat in their humps, not water. The fact that they can go without water for a long time - up to 7 days if they are actively working, and up to two weeks if they are resting - is explained primarily by the fact that camels hardly sweat (the camel's body temperature should rise to 40 degrees, only then it will start to sweat). In addition, they partially recover the moisture lost during exhalation: at night, when the camels are sleeping, their nostrils absorb moisture from the surrounding air. In addition, camels have a very clever cooling system: dense hair on the back, which protects from the sun, and sparse hair on the belly, through which heat is released from the body in the shade.
A chicken can live without a head. Indeed, a couple of minutes after the head of the chicken is cut off, it "lives". She can run and even try to take off. This is because sometimes, losing its head, the chicken retains the brain stem, which is responsible for most of the reflexes. It is a confirmed fact that one strong individual lived without a head for a year and a half. So now it is clear where the expression "brainless chicken" came from - the head of this "non-bird" is not needed for life.
Hyenas are lion hangers and eat leftover food from a lion or leopard. However, these animals get up to 93% of their food by hunting! Much more often, lions take prey from hyenas.
A person gets warts if he touches a toad or frog. But this is certainly not the case. Neither toads nor frogs are to blame for anything. Warts also appear in people who have never taken frogs in their hands in their lives. But why they appear is not exactly clear.
In the illustrations for the famous biblical story, you can see snakes entwining a trunk. However, snakes never wrap around trunks. They just lie on them.
The snake hears the sound of a flute when the tamer plays it. When a snake tamer at a bazaar somewhere in Arabia or India puts a basket on the ground, lifts the lid and begins to play the flute, the snake pokes first its head and then its body from the basket and begins to wriggle in time with the sounds of the flute. But she does not hear any sounds, snakes do not have hearing at all. If they perceive sound waves, it is only as vibrations of the soil (but not air). They can be said to "feel" sounds. So the snake sways not to the beat of the sounds, but to the beat of the flute.
Wolves hunt in packs. The main food of the wolf is mice, squirrels or rabbits. A flock is not needed to drive such a beast. Only in winter, when there is a lack of food and there are not enough mice, wolves can stray into flocks. But the packs are rarely large - usually they are one family.
The leader of the pack is universally and invariably depicted in front of the pack. However, in reality, the weakest animal is always in front. The leader comes to the fore only if the situation is decisive or threatening.
When attacking, a bear stands on its hind legs. The bear attacks while standing on all four legs, biting with very strong teeth.
Koala bears. The koala bear (Latin - Phascolarctos cinereius) refers to marsupials, not bears. In particular, it is known that marsupials give birth to tiny cubs and mothers carry them on their bodies for a long time, and cubs are rather large animals. Adult koalas grow up to 50 centimeters. They live in eastern Australia and feed on the buds and young shoots of the eucalyptus tree. Previously, they were hunted for their lovely soft fur almost to complete extermination. Now koalas are included in the Red Book and began to breed again.
Bulls can't stand red. In fact, bulls are practically color blind. Therefore, they react to red in the same way as to green or blue, that is, in no way. Some zoologists believe that teasing the bull would be better with a white cloth. A colorful suit, banderillas, torrero cloaks - all this rather excites the audience than a bull. The bull is annoyed by the fact that someone hurts him, and even waves something under his nose.
Piranhas can eat people or animals alive when they enter the water. In fact, many people, both Indians and whites in South America, bathe and wash in the waters inhabited by piranhas. To bite - they bite, but to eat! As long as there is no blood in the water, these fish will not even pay attention to those present in the water! And during catching and transportation, piranhas sink to the bottom and fall on their side (they faint from shock).
Sharks attack humans. A shark attacks a person only if it is irritated or very hungry. At the same time, only about 10-12 species of the existing 350 species of sharks are known to attack humans unprovoked. Most are content with smaller food.
If the earthworm is cut, both halves continue to live. If the worm is cut in half, only its front part continues to live. At the rear, a tail is formed in a dissected area, so that it has two tails. But she has no head, she cannot eat, so she inevitably dies. If you cut off only a small front part of the worm, then it will die, and a new head grows in the place of the cut, and the worm continues to live. The fact is that this will not damage the organs of regeneration, which are located between the 9th and 15th segments of the worm (its entire body can contain up to 180 segments).
Spiders are insects. To classify spiders as insects is completely wrong. They belong to the class of arachnids, which differ in many ways from insects: they do not have antennae-"antennas", they have four pairs of legs, and not three, like insects. They have no more in common with insects than they do with snakes or birds.
Bats are blind. Traditionally, it is believed that bats cannot see anything. However, this is not the case. They really have very narrow eyes that are not needed to move around at night. But bats use their eyes during the day. It only seems that the animals are sleeping during the day. In fact, during daylight hours they also move, but so that people cannot see them. Bats, by the way, not only see well, but also hear excellently. Their hypertrophied ears are able to perceive ultrasound at great distances.
The ostrich buries its head in the sand when in danger. This legend dates back to the times of the Roman Empire, when it was believed that ostriches were hiding from danger not just anywhere, but in the sand. Since then, the metaphorical expression "bury your head in the sand" has gone on. I must say that it has become popular not only in Russia, but also in the UK and a number of other countries. In fact, in case of danger, ostriches do what anyone in their place would do, whose limbs can reach speeds of up to 70 kilometers per hour - they run away. How did the famous sand myth come about? The fact is that ostriches actually lean towards the sand, but not to bury their head there, but ... to eat it. They ingest sand and pebbles to aid in grinding tough food in the stomach.
Birds can freeze in cold winters. In severe winters, frozen dead birds are sometimes found under shrubs and trees. But they did not freeze from the cold, they died from lack of food. If they had enough food, they would not be afraid of any frost.
Animals can predict natural disasters. There is no reliable evidence that animals have a "sixth sense". But excellent sense of smell, hearing and vision, as well as innate instincts, developed better than in humans, allow animals to quickly identify danger. In addition, animals will never stare out of curiosity at a hurricane or an impending tsunami. And yet, during natural disasters, many animals die. So, even if animals have a "sixth sense", it does not bring them much benefit.