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An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is driven by an electric motor, not an internal combustion engine. The energy source is usually batteries.
Electric vehicles have their own varieties - an electric car (a cargo vehicle for working in closed areas, lifting loads) and an electric bus (a bus with an electric battery).
Electric vehicles are becoming more widespread. In addition, there are a large number of homemade samples. You can also buy devices to convert a regular car to an electric one.
Today, China is the leader in the production of electric vehicles. The interest in such vehicles is fueled by their environmental friendliness and low operating costs, and the rather high price of electric vehicles and low mileage from one charge hinder the spread.
Curiously, the first electric car appeared even before the internal combustion engine, in 1841. The market for electric vehicles is very promising, but their spread is hindered by some myths, which we will consider.
Electric cars do not solve environmental problems; instead, power plants pollute nature. Even today, with 52% of the use of coal-fired power plants in the United States, the use of such vehicles will significantly reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere. After all, the use of energy in electric vehicles is 3-5 times more efficient than in conventional engines. This means that even when coal is burned in power plants to generate energy for this class of vehicles, they will still be much less harmful to the environment than those who use gasoline. The use of environmentally friendly energy sources generally makes such cars almost 100% harmless.
Customers simply don't want cars with such a low range. Yes, electric vehicles have an average range of about 300 kilometers. But more and more often we have to leave mobile phones to recharge overnight in order to use them the next day. The situation is the same with electric vehicles. It is estimated that 90% of motorists around the world drive no more than 90 kilometers per day. According to the US Department of Transportation, local motorists drive about 40 miles a day on average. Most of the new battery-powered cars have twice the range. In addition, at present, in different countries, there is a massive installation of charging points that can charge the battery up to 80% in just 15 minutes. Charging is also possible from a regular electrical outlet. The problem can also be solved with the use of hybrid vehicles, which in such a mixed mode can travel up to 300 kilometers.
Electric vehicle batteries have a short lifespan and are expensive. Today, manufacturers of modern lithium and ion batteries for electric vehicles give a warranty for their products for 10 years, or even more. But during this time, a quarter of the cars by themselves will end up in a landfill for various reasons, and half of the internal combustion engines have already undergone major repairs. The high cost of the battery is really a fact. However, their price is expected to fall as production increases. Some manufacturers also plan to lease batteries altogether.
To develop a network of electric vehicles, new energy capacities will be required. It is often heard that charging millions of electric vehicles at the same time will simply disable the country's electrical grid. It is estimated that even if all US cars go electric, the amount of electricity available at the peak of its consumption will be enough to charge about 80% of cars. In Denmark, Norway and other countries where alternative energy is developed, there is generally no problem of a shortage of electricity, there is even the question of an excess of its generation.
There is not enough lithium to produce batteries for electric vehicles. There are quite large amounts of lithium carbonate on the planet. So, in South America and China, this substance is generally mined directly from the surface of huge salt lakes. In addition, recycling lithium-ion batteries can restore their capacity to 90% of the original volume. It's worth remembering to use recycled batteries for lithium mining. It is estimated that even without this factor, while maintaining the pace and methods of lithium production, its reserves in the United States alone will last 75 years at an aggressive pace of sales of electric vehicles. But the United States has only a quarter of the world's reserves of this metal.
Electric cars are not safe. This cannot be said, because any certified electric vehicle from a major manufacturer meets all the necessary requirements for passive safety. In addition, the internal architecture of the body of the electric vehicle allows its designers to increase the size of the front crushing zone.
Electric vehicle technology is too complex for mainstream use. This is not true, there are only 5 main moving elements in an electric car engine, while there will be hundreds of them in a gasoline or diesel analogue. The owner of an electric car will not have to change the engine oil and filters, think about how high-quality gasoline and even brake linings will last three to five times longer here.
Electric cars are only good for the city with its short distances. For more than seven years, the widespread use of such transport has shown that it can be used for long journeys up to 120 miles.
Before introducing electric vehicles, it is necessary to create an infrastructure for charging stations. It is planned that most exercises can be done at home at all, so the presence of public gas stations is not a prerequisite for development. Nevertheless, such an infrastructure should still be present - after all, not everyone lives in private houses, one must also remember about travelers over long distances. Today in the United States, at least seven companies are competing quite fiercely in building networks of charging stations, promising to distribute them sufficiently throughout the country.
The chemicals in the battery itself are harmful to the environment and cannot be recycled. In conventional cars, 99% of batteries can be recycled. The new batteries already contain precious metals, which makes it unreasonable to recycle them. There are special programs for using such batteries to store energy after they have served their life in a car.
Lithium batteries are dangerous - they can explode. There are many types of lithium-ion batteries, like lithium-cobalt, which are used in consumer electronics. They can indeed ignite under certain conditions. However, everything is being done to reduce the risks. It uses advanced battery management and design systems to avoid heat leakage. Most of the batteries in cars are generally of other types (lithium iron phosphate and lithium manganese), which are equipped with advantages in terms of safety and durability.
The car takes too long to charge. It is most convenient to charge it at night when the driver is sleeping in his house. Even using the usual 120-volt outlet in the United States will allow the car to travel 40 miles in that time. Most of the new projects can be charged from 240-volt points, receiving a double or even triple charge at the same time. Moreover, new charging stations appear, which further reduce the time to restore energy reserves.
Electric vehicles are too expensive for the market. But all new technologies are expensive too. Remember the prices for the first mobile phones and DVD players? Keep in mind that in the United States, for example, the government is encouraging the purchase of electric vehicles with a tax credit of $ 2,500 to $ 7,500. Some states offer additional incentives of $ 5,000 (California and Texas). As a result, the acquisition and operation of electric vehicles are on a par with conventional counterparts. In addition, such vehicles practically do not require maintenance, as well as repairs.
Until 2050, most will still drive conventional cars. There are several important reasons for switching from gasoline to electricity. Fuel economy standards and government restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are being tightened; prices for petroleum products are forecast to rise amid growing demand for them. It is also important for the country to reduce its energy dependence, which is a national security challenge. And changes in climate are forcing governments to more vigorously implement programs for the transition to environmentally friendly modes of transport.
Electric vehicles have low noise levels, which can pose a problem for pedestrians. According to this myth, people crossing the road are often guided only by the sounds of a car, which in the case of a quiet electric car is fraught with accidents. In some countries, therefore, they even propose to specifically increase the noise of electric vehicles. However, the sharp noise of a powerful electric motor running is difficult to confuse with something. It is enough to remember only trolleybuses, electric cars or subway trains. Therefore, an electric vehicle needs the same noise reduction as regular transport. In addition, any modern car makes very little noise at low speed, mainly the noise of friction of wheels on the surface. But when using low-noise motors (as, for example, in trams), the noise is really practically absent.
All battery energy is spent on movement. The batteries in these vehicles only work well when driving at constant speeds or when traveling smoothly. Abrupt starts lead to a large waste of energy, which forces manufacturers to create special starting systems on capacitors. Also, about 10% of the energy is lost in the gearbox and transmission elements. Part of the electricity is also used to heat the cab and to power other onboard energy consumers.
Electric cars cannot go fast. Back in 1899, electric cars were able to overcome the 100 km / h milestone, becoming the fastest on the planet. On October 4, 2010, a Venture Jamais Contente with lithium-ion batteries on a salt lake in Utah set a new record for electric vehicles at a distance of 1 km. The indicator was 495 km / h, and during the race, even a speed of 505 km / h was reached.