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Domestic dogs (Canis lupus f. Familiaris), mammals of the canine family. Distributed throughout the globe. Came from the wolf. Domesticated, apparently, in the Mesolithic (Stone Age, 13-7th millennium BC). In the process of domestication and breeding, more than 400 breeds of dogs have been created, differing in size, constitution, coat, color, behavior.
According to the anatomical structure, dogs are typical carnivores. They have 42 teeth (12 incisors, 4 canines and 26 molars), of which canines are the most developed. The brain is developed, which makes it possible to train dogs for a wide variety of purposes. Dogs have fine hearing, keen eyesight, developed sense of smell. They run well, jump, swim. Females reach sexual maturity at 7-8 months of age, males at 10-12 months.
Life expectancy is 10-12 (up to 16-17) years. Basic feed: meat, cereals, bread, vegetables, whole or crushed bones, fish oil, bone meal are given as a top dressing. The dogs are kept, depending on the use: breeding and guard dogs - in mesh enclosures, in which a wooden booth with a canopy is installed, shepherds - in huts (with flocks) in summer, in booths in winter; lovers usually keep dogs in the house.
Modern dog breeds are divided into 3 groups: hunting dogs, service dogs and decorative (indoor) dogs. Of the decorative dog breeds, the most popular everywhere are small terriers (toy terrier, sky terrier, seligam-, kern-, border-, kerry-, bluebudling tonterriers, Yorkshire terrier), small and dwarf pinschers, schnauzers, poodles, French bulldogs, chihuas , Japanese hin, Peking dog, lapdog (Maltese, French, colored), Spitz, etc.
Domestic dogs suffer from many infectious diseases that are transmitted to humans: rabies, scabies, ringworm, scab, helminthic diseases, etc., therefore, they need constant veterinary control.
The dog jumps on you for joy. Alas, just a dog considers a person to be its leader, and according to dog rules, in recognition of its subordination, it must poke the leader's chin with its nose.
If a dog is wagging its tail, then it is fun and good? Of course, dogs experience emotions (including joy), but the tail has nothing to do with it. Twitching quickly and vigorously, it simply helps the animal to diffuse its individual scent secreted by the glands. They are located just under the tail! That is why all dogs begin their acquaintance with sniffing the "tail" space, as if introducing themselves to each other. Therefore, when the dog starts wagging his tail in front of you, he simply asks you to recognize him as yours.
A set tail indicates fear and submission. This, by the way, also does not mean that the dog is safe, because fear and aggression are always close by. By the way, many trainers do not advise petting a frightened dog, so as not to encourage its fear. And in the dog it is necessary to cultivate courage and independence.
Little dog old age puppy. Dogs of miniature breeds love to play and frolic at any age, and large ones tend to be more phlegmatic. True, this does not apply, for example, to German shepherds, they are very mobile. Yes, and huge mastiffs sometimes give odds to a lapdog. But these are already questions of the character of an individual animal, and yours too: it is better to choose a dog in accordance with your own temperament.
A dog's mouth is cleaner than a human's mouth. Despite the fact that dogs love to poke their nose and tongue in places that cannot be called clean, it is believed that a dog's mouth is more sterile than a human's. In fact, the set of bacteria living in the mouth of different species is so different that it simply cannot be compared. So the dog is not cleaner, it is just different.
After the release of the Disney studio cartoon "101 Dalmatians", people began to buy puppies, expecting to find a smart and smart friend. However, dogs of this breed are not distinguished by any special intelligence or ingenuity. Their only feature is the spotted skin.
Dogs are initially aggressive. The main mistake is humanizing a dog and not knowing its psychology. Most people consider a puppy to be their child, completely forgetting that a dog by its origin is a gregarious animal, it lives according to the laws of its community, where there is a strict hierarchy. And if you consider the dog the most important member of the family, indulge in everything, then it will feel like a leader and will definitely become aggressive! Genetic, congenital aggression is very rare. Although, in fairness, I must say that there are initially (by nature) aggressive dog breeds (pit bulls, staffordshire terriers, fila brasileiro, argentine mastiffs). But even such dogs will not rush at people if you direct their aggression in a peaceful direction, for example, sports (frisbee, agility) or long, two to three hours, vigorous walks with training. If it is not possible to devote a lot of time to physical education, there will be problems ...
Ears are cut off for malice. It is believed that in some breeds of dogs (in particular, in Caucasian and Central Asian Shepherd Dogs), the ears are not cropped, but cut off so that the dog is more aggressive. That's a moot point. Some dog handlers believe that this was done to make the dog less vulnerable in battle with the wolf. Others believe that so the shepherds could quickly find out whether the dog is a wolf. In our time, dangling ears have become nothing more than a decorative sign of the breed.
The blacker the mouth, the angrier the dog. Many people still choose a puppy to guard their dacha, guided by the "black mouth" principle, they say, such dogs are the most evil. Nothing like this! The black color of the mouth just indicates a strong pigmentation of the mucous membrane. This kind of age spots also occur in people (more often in old age), but this does not determine the degree of viciousness of grandparents. Substances that provide pigmentation only strengthen the dog's tooth enamel, but do not affect the psyche. By the way, it is almost impossible to identify a pathologically vicious or pugnacious dog in a puppy.
A cold, wet nose is a sign of canine health. A sick dog may have a wet nose. And there are also different diseases, sometimes very wet noses.
A dry and hot nose is a sign of illness. The dog just might be hot. Never diagnose a dog yourself by touching its nose! And if it seems that the pet is ill - immediately to the vet, and no self-medication!
Dogs are color blind. They distinguish colors, but not all. Dogs do not perceive red and green, therefore both the spring grass and the red collar are simply dark. But blue, yellow and gray dogs are distinguished. So the world for dogs is quite bright. And where there is not enough sight, the richness of the picture of the world complements the sense of smell.
Dogs should be treated with bones as often as possible. For wild animals, bones are an excellent source of minerals. However, many veterinarians argue that they are more likely to be harmful to pets fed a balanced diet. Tiny splinters of bone can injure your dog's digestive tract. But what about the dog's favorite pastime - gnawing? Can I go to the pet store and buy the dog a couple of bovine gummy treats or some pig ears? These toys taste good to dogs and clean their teeth.
Dogs don't recognize their cubs. But, as offensive as it is for sentimental citizens, bitches do not recognize their grown children. No, of course, if the puppy is picked up and a month later come to visit, she will still remember him. If he constantly communicates, he will also distinguish from others. And the puppy will not be shy. True, over time, a grown dog may have not filial feelings for his mother at all, even if he has lived with her in the same apartment since infancy. Therefore, experts do not recommend keeping a boy from the litter as a second dog, and if left, sterilize a son or mother.
An old dog cannot be trained - it is useless. People often think that training is a burden for the animal, and try not to burden it. In fact, every dog likes it when the owner fiddles with him. Of course, older dogs get tired faster, but they are quite trainable. Moreover, if you want senile dementia to overtake your friend as late as possible, exercise his intellect constantly.
To stay healthy, a dog only needs to give birth once. How many dog lovers spoil the lives of themselves and their pets, taking this myth for a guide to action! And the result, as a rule, is disappointing: tired owners, pulled dogs and poorly grown puppies, which cannot always be "attached". In fact, dogs that have had offspring only once are more likely to develop diseases. The thing is that at the first puppyhood, there is a sharp restructuring of the hormonal balance. And if after that mating stops, then the "activated" hormones simply harm the body.
Mongrels are smarter than thoroughbred tetrapods. It is a very common myth that mongrel dogs are smarter and less susceptible to disease. In fact, they will die from distemper or infectious hepatitis as well as their purebred relatives. As for the mind and character, in the case of the mongrel, it is even impossible to assume anything. When you choose a dog of a certain breed, then first of all look at the specific features of the behavior and reactions of the animal. For example, if a child drags a Labrador by the ears, you can worry less about him than if he had the idea to pull the Doberman's tail trim. In the case of a mongrel, you cannot vouch for her actions.