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Depression (lat. Depressio - suppression, oppression) 1) a mood characterized by a feeling of inadequacy, a sense of despair, decreased activity or reactivity, pessimism, sadness and related symptoms; normal, relatively short-lived and frequent; 2) a mental disorder, the main signs of which are persistent long-term (at least 2 weeks) decreased mood, a feeling of melancholy, a feeling of hopelessness.
As a rule, it is accompanied by motor retardation (sometimes agitation), slow thinking, anxiety, ideas of self-blame, sleep disorder (early morning awakening), impaired appetite, decreased libido. A reluctance to communicate and accept help from others is characteristic. In some patients, complaints of physical health problems (weight loss, constipation, arterial hypertension, palpitations, pain in the chest, head, abdomen, joints or back) come to the fore.
There are both extremely severe (melancholy) and relatively mild (dysthymia) variants. Severe depression is very dangerous due to the high likelihood of suicide. Depression is not considered an independent disease, but acts as a manifestation of many mental illnesses (manic-depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, intoxication, alcoholism, diseases caused by mental trauma, etc.).
In approximately equal proportions, there are cases of depression associated with stress, severe psychological loss (reactive depression), and arising for no reason against the background of complete psychological comfort (endogenous depression). In any case, depression is considered a very favorable disorder, as it responds well to treatment, sometimes it goes away spontaneously.
Endogenous depression is prone to recurrent attacks. For treatment, psychotropic drugs (antidepressants), electroconvulsive therapy and psychotherapy are used. In accordance with the law of the Russian Federation, the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders is carried out by a psychiatrist.
People in our country know so little about depression, and the existing ideas about it are so distorted that it is even strange to write about myths. Actually, everything that is known to the average person about this disease is one continuous myth.
In the fall, longing attacks only the whiners of life. People who are generally not prone to depression, somewhere in 5 - 7% of the total population. In psychiatry, such lucky ones are called "sunny natures." All the rest, alas, get melancholy from time to time. In early autumn, they feel psychologically uncomfortable (and for no apparent reason):
- Cyclothymic personalities - quite healthy people, but prone to unreasonable mood swings, too sensitive by nature. In the fall, everything falls from their hands, a breakdown, tearful irritability and headaches. There are about 20% of such people;
- people with weak vegetation. They have in the first place attacks of dystonia, pressure surges and, as a result, a depressive mood. There are about 15% of them;
- there is also a special group of depressions, which are often "pounced" in the off-season - hormone-dependent. Their "prey" are people during periods of hormonal shocks (pregnancy, menopause), suffering from diseases of the thyroid gland.
Depression is always to blame for acute stress or shock. Much depends on the psychotype. Acute stress can cause post-traumatic depression, but it is not uncommon for shock to interrupt a depressive attack. Other types of melancholy are often based on the accumulation of negativity. Sometimes, in order to "unwind" the spiral "of the disease, the psychologist has to" wind back "the patient's life several years ago. For someone, prolonged stress has purely mental manifestations - open depression, the development of phobias (all kinds of fears). And in someone it provokes diseases of internal organs. This is what psychiatrists call masked or somatized ("soma" - body) depression.
In choleric people, stress is most often disguised as cardiovascular ailments (hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart attack), duodenal ulcer, urological problems.
In melancholic patients, depression can result in stomach ulcers, asthmoid conditions, neurodermatitis. Sanguine people and phlegmatic people are less prone to diseases on the basis of nerves.
Depression does not need to be treated as it is not a disease. There is a widespread belief that depression is nothing, an everyday matter and sometimes happens to everyone. Or even someone has nothing to do, so he shows off. This is not a disease at all, just a person himself gives vent to his bad mood. And since it is not a disease, but some kind of pampering, then no medicine for depression is needed. In fact, depression is a real disease. And the disease is serious, even with a possible fatal outcome. It is not for nothing that the bulk of suicides are attributed to mood disorders. Of course, a person can cope with a mild form of depression on his own, but in severe cases, without treatment, depression can last for years, intensify and develop into something even more severe, for example, manic-depressive psychosis.
Here everything is just like with any other illness, for example, with the flu: you can "sleep over", you can even "go over" according to the principle "it will pass by itself", but there is always a risk that without professional help the matter will end in serious complications and hospital. In general, it is better to see the doctor right away, and let him decide what is now necessary - to drink tea with honey or immediately start taking antimicrobial drugs. It is the same with depression. A person cannot independently assess his condition. Unlike the flu, which literally everyone has experience in treating, even friends and family will not help with depression. You need to contact a specialist. This is where another malignant myth emerges.
Depression is forever. Not necessary. With adequate treatment of a depressive episode, the illness can be forgotten. Forever and ever.
To overcome it, you just need to shake yourself. There are several clear signs by which you can determine that it is time to see a doctor (and depression, unlike blues and sadness, is a serious illness that requires medical attention):
- bad mood, fatigue, inability to concentrate last more than 5 - 7 days from day to day;
- you wake up already in melancholy, with bad thoughts;
- a depressed mood does not correspond to the objective situation, that is, it occurs against the background of general well-being;
- sleep is disturbed - either daytime sleepiness or heavy night sleep, early awakening and inability to fall asleep again;
- thoughts of suicide - direct or veiled such as "everyone will be better without me", "it is not clear why I live", etc.
It is worth contacting a doctor, they will be fed with antidepressants. With depression, antidepressants are not always needed! An integrated approach is important: psychotherapy plus individually selected doses of drugs. There is no universal scheme: asthenic depressions are treated with stimulants, anxious ones - with sedatives. The patient cannot be loaded with drugs - he is already confused and depressed. To normalize the deep processes in the nervous system, micro doses of tranquilizers and neuroleptics are needed. Of the general funds to support the body, all vitamins of group B, C, folic acid, as well as complexes with calcium and magnesium, selenium and lecithin are needed.
You can not independently select psychotropic drugs for yourself. Some of them, when mishandled, on the contrary, deepen depression! These medicines include:
- neuroleptics of the chlorpromazine series (chlorpromazine, triftazine). They are designed to relieve arousal, delirium. As a side effect, they can cause apathetic depression, depression, melancholy;
- buterophenones (haloperidol, trisedil). May cause decreased mood and fussiness;
- tranquilizers of the benzodiazepine series (seduxen, valium, phenazepam). Usually well tolerated, but can cause lethargy;
- atypical antipsychotics (seroquel, rispolept, azaleptin). Cause indifference, indifference to surrounding events;
- antidepressants - yes, yes, they can also provoke depression if there is an overdose or an error in the diagnosis. For example, if the doctor mistook volitional disorders (abulia) for neurotic depression.
Antidepressants are dangerous to health. I must say, not quite a myth. Even modern, rather humane drugs designed to fight depression can have side effects, although psychiatrists try to choose treatment so as not to aggravate their patients' troubles. Most often, antidepressants cause headaches, dizziness, sweating, palpitations, increased sensitivity to light, loss of sexual desire, drowsiness, decreased or, conversely, increased appetite. Most of all, patients are afraid of the latter. It is believed that taking antidepressants can cause a person to gain weight. But, this is possible with the depression itself. Some people fear the loss of sexual desire, but even with depression it is difficult to be a sex giant. In addition, side effects disappear immediately after the end of the course of treatment, and depression with its unpleasant symptoms can last for years.
Antidepressants are addictive. There is even nothing to say. Neither the old antediluvian, much less modern mild antidepressants, do not cause physiological dependence, unless only psychological. But that only does not cause psychological dependence. Then we must talk about the danger of ascorbic acid. Look how children sit down! All the time they ask mothers in pharmacies for "big tasty pills".
You can prescribe antidepressants yourself. The consequences of self-administration can be varied. The chances that medications will help are scanty. And even less chance that they will not harm. Antidepressants are highly active substances that the doctor selects individually. This is especially true for dosages.
Antidepressants can be stopped at any time. Often, when the symptoms of depression are diminishing and the side effects are tired, a person simply quits treatment. But this is absolutely impossible to do! The doctor not only prescribes antidepressants, but must constantly monitor the patient while he is taking them.
Usually, small doses are prescribed first, then gradually increased, and then reduced again before completely discontinuing the medicine. If you quit the course of treatment at its very peak, it is possible not only a resumption of depression in an even worse form, but also other entertaining side effects: nausea with vomiting, lack of focus, dizziness - in general, a complete set of troubles.
Depression is synonymous with being in a bad mood. There are 10 most common types of depression, which have a wide variety of manifestations:
1) Anxious - the main depressive signs are added to causeless anxiety, fussiness, general anxiety.
2) Asthenic - depression of exhaustion. A feeling of fatigue prevails, outwardly - a shade of exhaustion, a person can even seriously lose weight.
3) Hypochondriacal - associated with anxiety for their health, a feeling of incomprehensible malaise, bad thoughts such as "do not I have cancer."
4) Angry (dysphoric) - absolutely everything annoys, the expression on the face becomes unkind, a look from under the brows. Attacks of anger alternate with tears, resentment, aggressiveness.
5) Grumbling - a person whines, complains, is in a state of chronic discontent with everything in the world.
6) Disguised (hidden) - manifests itself not in the form of a mental disorder, but disguises itself as diseases of internal organs - heart, stomach, etc.
7) Smiling - outwardly, a person seems benevolent, smiling, but under this mask there is indifference (oh, leave me everything ...), longing and mental pain. The most dangerous form in terms of suicide.
8) Apathetic - complete indifference to the environment, I do not want anything, "nothing pleases, does not hurt ...".
9) Anhedonic - loss of a sense of joy, satiety with emotions, a feeling of mental impasse. Depression of great emperors and successful businessmen.
10) Depression without depression - in fact, blues, spleen, dissatisfaction with oneself and the whole world, doubts, when a person does not find a place for himself and cannot decide what he really wants.
It is interesting!
On the contrary, depression sometimes drives success. This is either dysphoria (angry depression with mood swings), in which a person seeks to prove something to others despite the illness. Or lyrical depression, at the height of which Pushkin and Goethe created their masterpieces.