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Croatia is a state in Southern Europe. A significant part of Croatia's territory is on the mainland, in addition, the state belongs to the Istrian peninsula.
One thousand one hundred and eighty-five islands and islets are located along the coast. The largest are Mljet, Korcula, Brac, Hvar, Pag, Cres, Krk. The Adriatic Sea washes the western part of the country.
Zagreb is the capital of Croatia. Croatian is recognized as the official language, but German is also common. On the Istrian peninsula, communication in Italian is convenient for many.
In Croatia, the Catholic faith prevails (it is professed by more than seventy-six percent of the population). Approximately eleven percent of the population is Catholic, one percent Muslim, and one and a half percent Protestant.
The Croatian Kuna is the currency of the state. According to the form of government, Croatia is a unitary state, according to the form of government, it is a republic. Since 2001, the Sabor, a unicameral parliament with legislative powers, has been functioning in Croatia.
In the period from 1991 to 2001, the parliament was bicameral. The President is the head of the country and is elected for a term of five years. On December 20, 1990, a constitution was adopted in Croatia, the country became independent from Yugoslavia in June 1991, in connection with which some amendments were made to the Constitution (in particular, on the reform of the parliament).
According to the administrative division, Croatia consists of twenty regions (zupanii), one hundred twenty-two cities and four hundred twenty-four communities. The city of Zagreb has the status of the twenty-first county.
The population of Croatia is four million seven hundred thousand people. The national composition of the country is quite variegated: Croats, Serbs, Montenegrins, Albanians, Slovenes and other peoples live on its territory. According to the 2001 census, the share of Croats in the total population was 89.6%.
Croatia has a unique Mediterranean climate. This fact is the reason for the popularity of this country in the eyes of European tourists.
Moreover, doctors recognize Croatia as a preferred vacation spot for Russians in the summer months (the reason is the same favorable climate). The average air temperature in summer varies from thirty to thirty-one degrees, water - from twenty-five to twenty-seven degrees.
The international airport of the Croatian capital is located seventeen kilometers from the city center. Dubrovnik airport is located eighteen kilometers from the city, a bus will take everyone to the center in twenty minutes.
Zagreb is the capital of Croatia. Local residents affectionately call their city nothing more than "millennial old Zagreb". Once having united two cities (Gradz and Kaptol), Zagreb now has a huge territory. A significant part of medieval Zagreb has survived to our time. 1093 was marked by the first mention of the city. Zagreb has become the main Croatian city since the middle of the sixteenth century; this event was largely facilitated by the favorable geographical position of Zagreb. Now Zagreb consists of two parts: the Lower City and the Upper City, which occupies the northeastern part. The Lower City represents modern Zagreb, while the Upper City embodies its history and is represented by many old buildings. The population of the Croatian capital is approximately one million. The symbol of the city is the Cathedral. It is preferable to start the acquaintance with Zagreb from the Old Town, in this case the tourist will be able to breathe in the unique atmosphere of the Croatian capital, which is saturated with both the spirit of antiquity and inexorable modernity. Among the main attractions of Zagreb: the Mimara Museum, the National Theater, the Archbishop's Palace, the Church of St. Catherine, the stone gate of the thirteenth century, the Zoological and Botanical Gardens, the Town Hall, etc. You can taste local dishes in cafes and restaurants. All of them have a common name "Zagorsk cuisine".
The city of Zagreb has a beautiful legend about the origin of its name. One of the local legends really says about the following event. Once a Croatian detachment went on a military campaign. However, the soldiers needed rest. The leader of the squad with force stuck his sword into the ground at a halt (and this happened just on the territory of present-day Zagreb). In the place where the sword entered the ground, a fountain of cold water immediately gushed out. The water was long-awaited, so the leader gave the command to his soldiers to "rake" it. There is another version of the origin of the name of the city "Zagreb". Translated from the Old Croatian language, "zagreb" is translated as "settlement, fortification, embankment". The city probably got its name in honor of the ancient fortification.
Russians need a visa to visit Croatia. Not at all. Entry to Croatia for citizens of the Russian Federation is visa-free; at the border, either a tourist voucher or an invitation is required. You do not need to provide any declarations when entering the country or leaving it.
Croatia is an ecologically clean country. Its ecology is recognized as one of the best in the world. By the way, along with the amazingly beautiful nature. Over the past years, the country has received the "Blue Flag" from a special commission of UNESCO. The transparency of the water is often fifty meters. Tropical plants grow next to pine forests. However, not only the Adriatic coast is the pride of Croatia. This country is also famous for its mineral and thermal springs. There are seven wonderful national parks in Croatia.
The Croatian economy is characterized by stable growth. The most important sectors of the economy for Croatia are the following: shipbuilding, textile, food, chemical, pharmaceutical, electronic, electrical, woodworking, mechanical engineering. Tourism also occupies not the last place in the economic life of the country. The number of tourists who want to spend their holidays in Croatia is growing every year. However, there are also weaknesses in the Croatian economy. For example, the high unemployment rate, which is twenty percent.
Dalmatia is a historical region in Croatia. Located on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, most of Dalmatia occupies the territory of modern Croatia. A smaller part of Dalmatia is located in Montenegro. Dalmatia itself is a seaside coastal belt, the length of which is about four hundred kilometers, it is one of the oldest European geographical formations. The shores of Dalmatia and its thousand islands are washed by the waters of the Adriatic Sea. The territory of Dalmatia has concentrated on itself several specialized reserves, three nature parks and four National Parks. Natural parks include Biokovo, Telashchiva, Velebit. National parks - Mljet, Krka, Paklenica, Kornati.
Croatia has a Mediterranean climate. Central Croatia is characterized by a mountainous and semi-mountainous climate, a continental climate prevails in the northern part of the country, while a Mediterranean climate is characteristic only of the coastal part of Croatia. Winter temperatures vary considerably from area to area. If in coastal areas the average temperature in the cold season is about five degrees Celsius with a plus sign, then in Central Croatia it reaches thirty degrees Celsius with a minus sign. Average summer temperatures on the coast range from twenty-six to thirty degrees Celsius with a plus sign, on the continent from twenty to twenty degrees Celsius with a plus sign, and, finally, in mountainous regions, as a rule, from fifteen to twenty degrees Celsius. with a plus sign.
Croatian national cuisine is not very diverse. On the contrary, it is very diverse and rich, so everyone will like it. Croatian cuisine is built from both domestic and borrowed recipes. Many of the international dishes in Croatia are already recognized as domestic. The cuisine of many islands is unique. That only the dish "visovachka begavice" is worth. Its basis is young lamb. The dish is prepared using sour sheep's milk. In general, the national cuisine of this country is recognized as a true masterpiece in the history of culinary art. The peculiarities of nutrition in general and food preparation in particular are also dictated by climatic, natural and historical characteristics, and not only by the condition of the availability of certain products. The rich historical past of Croatia could not but affect its culinary traditions. According to the five main Croatian regions, the national cuisine is also subdivided into five branches. One of these varieties is Dalmatian cuisine (Dalmatia region). The most strongly intertwining of different culinary preferences is reflected in the cuisine of the capital of Croatia - the city of Zagreb. One of the culinary traditions common to all of Croatia is cooking under a cast-iron hood - "from under the peka". Since ancient times, local residents have cooked in this way, for example, the meat of a young calf or octopus.
Wines are the pride of Croatia. We can talk about them in the very first place. The range of Croatian wines is very wide - there are more than seven hundred high-quality wines alone. Other popular drinks in this country (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) include mineral waters and juices, beer and brandy. In the south of Croatia you can taste bevanda. It is a special drink made by mixing red wine with water. In the north of Croatia you can enjoy the "gemist". This drink is a cocktail of dry white wines. True, this cocktail is also diluted with mineral water. Dry wines are a special pride of Croatia. White wines are more revered in the north of the country, and red wines in the south.
Herbal products are the basis of Dalmatian cuisine. Despite this, fish and seafood are always an integral part of it. Seafood dishes are usually served either fried or boiled. Dalmatian (and Croatian in general) cuisine is distinguished by a commitment to healthy eating: cooked dishes are preferred over fried ones. The food is cooked in olive oil with the addition of various spices.
The Istrian region is characterized by a special culinary experience. The cuisine of this region has incorporated the culinary elements of some of the inland and coastal areas. This kind of Croatian cuisine is based on fresh vegetables and fruits. Fish and seafood (which are usually either baked over an open fire or boiled) are seasoned with herbs, spices, and cooked in olive oil. Seafood is varied: oysters, shrimps, shells, squid, and of course fish. Another characteristic feature of Istria is the rich selection of cheeses and cold snacks made from them. The first courses are also unique. For their preparation, the same fish is usually used. meals are served with cheese, olives and smoked ham.
Croatia is a country of festivals. A huge number of various celebrations and festivals are held on its territory throughout the year. April is marked by the "Music Biennale" - a festival taking place in the Croatian capital. Zagreb also hosts the Flora-Art flower exhibition, the Cartoon Festival, the St. Mark's Philharmonic Festival (all of which are in June), the International Jazz Days in October and many other special events. In February, the feast of St. Blaže, the Carnival takes place in Dubrovnik, and the middle of summer is celebrated here with a rich international summer festival.
The most popular sport in Croatia is football. Of course it is. The formation of this sport in the country took place at the beginning of the twentieth century: the Croatian Football Federation was formed in 1912. Currently, the country takes part in the Eurocup cups, has its own national team, since 1998 the Croatian national football team has been recognized as one of the world famous football forces.
Railway transport is well developed in Croatia. By rail, you can get to Croatia from almost any European country. Internal rail links are also well established.
Taxis are the most common form of public transport in Croatia. This is not the case, since that is the bus. In Zagreb and Osijek, the bus also shares the leadership with the tram. The ticket price is approximately equal to sixty-five cents. They can be bought either at newsstands or directly in the salon. For one dollar seventy-five cents you can buy a day pass for all types of transport. Taxi is a less common form of transport, but it is still quite popular. One trip within the city will cost about five to eight dollars. The final cost is obtained by adding several fares: almost two and a half dollars for boarding, almost one dollar for each kilometer of travel, about fifteen cents for luggage. From ten o'clock in the evening to five o'clock in the morning, rates are twenty percent higher than the rest of the day. The trip will also cost more on holidays.
There are good roads in Croatia. On the contrary, their condition leaves much to be desired. Croatia currently pays special attention to the development of road infrastructure. A person who has insurance and documents for the car and, of course, a driver's license has the right to drive. On expressways, you can reach speeds of up to one hundred and thirty kilometers per hour, outside settlements - up to eighty kilometers per hour, and within their boundaries - up to fifty kilometers per hour.
Croatia has several airports of international importance. There are six of them. They are located in the following cities: Zagreb, Split, Dubrovnik, Pula, Zadar and Rijeka. Zagreb International Airport is located seventeen kilometers from the central part of the Croatian capital; the main bus station can be reached by bus, which leaves the airport every half hour, as well as by taxi. Split International Airport is located twenty four kilometers from its center. Buses run regularly between the airport and the center of Split. Dubrovnik International Airport is located eighteen kilometers from it; by bus you can get to the center in twenty minutes.
Tourism is one of the most promising areas of economic life in Croatia. Numerous islands, and indeed the coast of the Adriatic Sea, have this. It is worth noting that tourism began to develop here already in the nineteenth century, as for the twentieth century, at that time the Croatian coast was the leader in the socialist world in terms of the development of tourist destinations. And although the nineties of the twentieth century were marked by a decline in Croatian tourism, with the beginning of the new millennium, this industry began to develop at a very rapid pace. A significant number of tourists agree that it is preferable to vacation in Croatia either in summer or in September. A huge number of excursions and relaxation on the beach will satisfy the taste of any tourist.
Croatia is a country of many natural attractions.The main natural attraction of this country is the Adriatic coast itself and about one thousand one hundred and eighty-five islands and small islets located along it. Of course, all seven national parks of this country also belong to natural masterpieces. Three national parks are located on the coastal islands. These are Mljet, Kornati and Brijuni. The natural monuments protected by UNESCO include Spli, Dubrovnik, Plitvice Lakes. The most popular resorts are Dubrovnik, Makarska Riviera, Split, Primosten, Kvarner Riviera, as well as the cities of the Istrian peninsula (Rovinj, Umag, Pula, Porec and others).
The best place to start your acquaintance with Croatia is Dubrovnik. This city is very famous in the Adriatic - largely thanks to the medieval fortress that has survived to this day. Not only is this fortress extraordinarily beautiful in itself, but its walls also meet the blows of sea waves. Dubrovnik is located in South Dalmatia. Dubrovnik boasts stunning architecture and rich historical heritage. Many European tourists are planning their summer holidays in Dubrovnik. Dubrovnik was founded in the seventh century. At that time, the city was surrounded by a stone wall. The war between Croats and Serbs in 1991 caused serious damage to the city. The bombing destroyed a significant part of the historical heritage, especially the architecture. Currently Dubrovnik has been completely restored and attracts numerous tourists. First of all, it boasts of bays and bays deeply protruding into the land. Man-made masterpieces deserve no less attention. Among the main attractions of the city: the Sponza Palace (sixteenth century), the Gothic palace of the rector (fifteenth century), Onofrio's fountain (built in 1438), the City Bell Tower (rebuilt in 1929), the Dominican monastery (built in 1301).
Mlini is a cozy resort town in Croatia. The name of this resort town was given by the word "mill". Mlini is located ten kilometers south of Dubrovnik, twelve kilometers from the airport. Mlini boasts excellent fine pebble beaches. A beautiful path, several kilometers long, stretches along the sea. Regional points of interest include St. Roca and the church of St. Gillarion. From Mlini Dubrovnik can be reached either by bus or by boat. The bus journey will be approximately twenty-five minutes and the tour boat journey approximately thirty-five minutes. Mlini is an excellent resort in Dubrovnik, rightfully recognized as one of the best in the area. Bars, restaurants, superb hotels and hotels all form an integral part of the Mlini resort.
Opatija is a unique Croatian resort. It has no analogues in the whole country. The fact is that the resort is delimited from the Istrian peninsula by the Učka mountain. The height of this mountain is one thousand three hundred meters. The city is replete with parks, in which there are various subtropical trees: bamboo, palms, magnolias and others. Exotic plants grow unhindered in parks due to the fact that the average air temperature in Opatija is an order of magnitude higher than in nearby areas. Opatija became a resort in 1844. It was then that Angiolina's first villa was built on its territory. Since this year, Opatija has hosted members of the royal families and many celebrities. During its formation, the city grew around a Benedictine monastery. Actually from the monastery (monastery) the city got its name. The tourist symbol of Opatija is the Japanese camellia flowers, which bloom with the arrival of spring. The picturesque town is nestled at the foot of Uchka Mountain.
Health tourism is one of the most promising areas of Opatija. This is facilitated by the climatic features of the area and, of course, the activities of famous doctors. This feature also increases the popularity of Opatija in the eyes of European tourists. In order to restore and improve their health, A.P. Chekhov, Franz Joseph I, Wilhelm II and many other famous people came here at one time. Opatija has an atmosphere of preservation of cultural traditions, modernity and history are miraculously intertwined here. For example, some hotels in Opatija are housed in historic buildings from the nineteenth century. This fact, however, does not interfere with serving tourists at a modern excellent level, providing all the opportunities to receive high-quality treatment and fully relax.
Porec is the center of Croatia's historical heritage. It is located fifty kilometers north of Pula. Indeed, this Croatian city has preserved many historical monuments to this day. In addition, the city of Porec is the center of the cultural traditions of Croatia. The urban center of this unique city still reflects the layout of Roman streets. The city became famous for the development of tourism, because already in the middle of the nineteenth century, Porec had a tourist guide. Historical and tourist origins "coexist" with each other, because the historical core of Porec, capable of satisfying the need of an inquisitive tourist, is surrounded by everything that is commonly called the developed infrastructure of the resort. Currently, tourists are attracted here by the warm sea, gentle sun, wonderful beaches, untouched pine forests, beautiful embankments and a large number of small cafes and chic restaurants. Other local attractions include the following: Marafor - the preserved part of the Roman Forum, the Great Temple, the Temple of Neptune, the Basilica of St. Ephrasius, etc. The Basilica of St. Ephrasius was built in the first half of the sixth century on the ruins of an earlier basilica and today is a true pearl of the city, more Moreover, it has retained the most beautiful Byzantine mosaics.
Pula is the most mysterious Croatian city. The reason for this is the rich history of this region - the first mention of the city is associated with the legend of the Argonauts who founded the "City of Refuge". The long history of the city is evidenced by a large number of items from archaeological excavations. They also talk about the connection of Pula with ancient Greek culture. One of the main attractions of Pula is the Arena amphitheater, which has survived to this day. Every year it hosts all kinds of festivals.