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Chile (full name is the Republic of Chile) is a state located in the southwestern part of the South American continent. Chile's territory is four thousand three hundred kilometers stretched from north to south along the Pacific coast.
Two mountain systems stretch through the Republic of Chile: the first is the Andes mountains in the east of the country, the second is the coastal Cordillera in the western part of Chile. The Republic of Chile borders on Argentina, Bolivia, Peru. The waters of the Pacific Ocean wash Chile from the west and south.
On March 11, 1981, the country adopted the Constitution after a referendum. The president is the head of state. He also heads the government of the republic. The president's term of office is limited to four years. The President cannot be re-elected for a second term.
The National Congress is the highest legislative body of the Republic of Chile. It consists of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate (the National Congress is bicameral). The Chamber of Deputies consists of one hundred and twenty members. Each of the sixty constituencies in the Chamber of Deputies is represented by two people. Members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a term of four years.
The Senate has thirty-eight members. Half of the senators are re-elected every four years, and half are appointed for a term of eight years.
The highest executive body of power is the Cabinet of Ministers (headed by the President). Spanish is officially accepted. Eighty-nine percent of the population is Catholic, another eleven percent are Protestants. The national currency of the Republic of Chile is the Chilean piso (equal to one hundred centavos).
Administratively, the territory of the Republic of Chile is subdivided into fifteen regions, which in turn are divided into fifty-three provinces and three hundred forty-six communities.
The population of the Republic of Chile increased from 12.3 million in 1983 to 16 million in 2005. The average life expectancy for men is seventy-two years, the average life expectancy for women is seventy-eight years.
A varied climate is a characteristic feature of the Republic of Chile. This is due to the large extent of the country in the direction from north to south. After all, Chile stretches for four thousand six hundred and thirty kilometers (that's two thousand eight hundred and eight miles) from north to south and only four hundred thirty kilometers (that's two hundred and sixty-five miles) 430 km from west to east. The northern region of the Republic of Chile is recognized as one of the driest on the planet. True, due to the influence of the Humboldt current, the temperature is somewhat softened. In the city of Antofagasta, the average January temperature is about twenty degrees Celsius with a plus sign, and the average July temperature is equal to thirteen degrees Celsius with a plus sign. January temperature in the city of Santiago varies from plus twelve degrees Celsius to plus twenty nine degrees Celsius, and the July temperature ranges from plus three degrees Celsius to plus fifteen degrees Celsius. Temperatures drop as you move south. Moreover, in some places it sometimes happens to observe snowfalls. In Punta Arenas, the average annual temperature is approximately seven degrees Celsius with a plus sign. An even subtropical climate is typical for Easter Island. It's pretty hot in here. The amount of precipitation is also not the same in different parts of the country. In the north of Chile, only about 11 mm of precipitation falls per year, while in the south of the Republic, up to 2500 mm of precipitation falls annually.
Santiago is the capital of the Republic of Chile. Moreover, it is the largest city in the Republic. It is located in the central valley of Chile. The date of the founding of Santiago is February 12, 1541. The Spanish conquistador became its founder Pedro de Valdivia, the first governor of the country. The city was named after the patron saint of Spain, the apostle St. James. However, the settlement that appeared in the winter of 1541 on this territory was practically destroyed in the fall during the battles with the Araucani. On July 14, 1810, a popular uprising took place in Santiago. This uprising was the starting point for the Chilean War of Independence. The war ended only in 1818. Santiago became the capital of an independent state. The Chilean capital is located at an altitude of about five hundred and forty meters at the foot of the Andes. Santiago's area is approximately six hundred square kilometers.
Santiago is a city of many attractions. Historically, Santa Lucia Hill is very significant. Its adornment is a wonderful old castle. Santiago was founded in the Mapocho valley at the foot of the Santa Lucia hill. The central square of the Chilean capital is the Plaza de Armas, where there is a monument to the founder of the city. The monument to Pedro de Valdivia was erected in 1960 in honor of one hundred and fifty years since the declaration of the country's independence. The Plaza de Armas is surrounded by many important structures. These are the La Moneda Palace, the largest Cathedral in the Republic, the building of the Royal Audience, the Municipality, the House of Governors. On Mount San Cristobal there is a white-stone statue of the Virgin Mary. On the ski lift, anyone can climb the mountain, which offers stunning views of the local surroundings. For the townspeople, Mount San Cristobal is a preferred place for walking. This is not surprising, because there are swimming pools, a botanical garden, a zoo, walking areas, restaurants, townspeople, and a wine museum. The name Central Park is quite suitable for this place. One of the best on the continent is the Municipal Opera and Ballet Theater in Chile. It was built in 1857. Many famous artists (including Placido Domingo and Anna Pavlova) performed on its stage. This theater is one of the National Monuments of the state (since 1974). One of the most striking areas of Santiago is the Bellavista area. It is better known as the "Parisian Quarter". There is a craft fair and a huge number of restaurants for every taste. A large collection of paintings by both Chilean and European artists is presented at the Palacio de Bellas Artes. The Chilean capital is home to a considerable number of museums. Among them are the Santiago Museum, the Museum of Modern Art, the Museum of the Pre-Columbian Era, and the house-museum of Pablo Neruda, the famous Chilean poet.
The Republic of Chile is one of the most interesting countries on Earth. The reasons for this are the majestic mountains, and the most beautiful landscapes, and the wealth of natural complexes, and the many-thousand-year history of the country, and the colorful local population, and much more. The most famous and beautiful natural attractions of the Republic are Chungara, Miskanti lakes, El Tatio geysers, Atacama Desert, Parinacota volcano, mysterious Easter Island, Paatgonia. The archaeological sites of Sapauira and Copacilla are popular.
Arica is the northernmost city in the Republic of Chile. The city is located near the Chile-Peru border, on the outskirts of a desert region. The special attractiveness of the city for tourists is explained by the unique combination of the Atacama Desert scorching heat located nearby and the mild warm climate of the city itself. Among the local attractions, the following are especially popular: the picturesque Asapa Valley, Morro Rock, Fort Alakran, Arica Fortress, Cathedral of St. Marcos built in 1876, the central square of Plaza de Armas. In the immediate vicinity of Arica, there are the picturesque town of San Miguel de Azapa, the oasis of the Pica Valley, the outskirts of the Atacama Desert, and the Mamina hot springs. In the city of San Miguel de Azapa you can visit the amazing Museum of Mummies.
The Atacama Desert is a natural landmark of the Republic of Chile. But this is not only one of the most interesting places in Chile. The Atacama Desert is one of the driest, and therefore lifeless, places in the world. Indeed, the desert may not know rain for several centuries in a row. Despite all this, the region has gained a reputation as an archaeologically significant region, as a region rich in majestic landscapes and unique wildlife, despite the climatic conditions. It would seem that the climate is not conducive to life here. The average annual daytime temperature is thirty-six degrees Celsius with a plus sign, while at night the air temperature can drop to zero degrees. In this case, the humidity is 0%. The flora of this region is represented by more than one hundred six and ten species of cacti, and the fauna - about two hundred species of animals. As for the animal world, it is mainly represented by insects and reptiles. The smallest water mixture and mists are all the moisture that representatives of flora and fauna can count on. However, the main attraction of the Atacama Desert is the "desert bloom". It is associated with a very short-term moisture intake. The latter usually occurs in September or October with the arrival of humid air masses from the Pacific Ocean. Small oases found in the desert remind of the ancient civilizations of the Aymara and Chinchorro that once existed in these territories. Almost everywhere in the desert there are traces of their cultures.
The Altiplano Highlands is one of the most beautiful places in the Republic of Chile. The average height of the highland that occupies the eastern part of the Atkama Desert is four thousand meters. At an altitude of about two and a half thousand meters, desert vegetation on the slopes of the mountains is gradually replaced by forbs. Thus, it seems that the rocks are covered with some kind of wonderful carpet. It is he who gives the district such a colorful appearance. The Altiplano area is distinguished by an unusual animal world adapted to the highlands. In view of this, it is not at all surprising that there are a large number of nature protection zones and national parks here. The main natural attractions, which many tourists flock to see, are Lake Chungara, the volcanoes Chungara, Parinakota, Sahama and the ever-smoking Guiatiri, Isluga National Park, Lauca Biosphere Reserve. Lake Chungara is one of the highest mountain lakes on Earth. It is located at an altitude of more than four and a half thousand meters and covers an area equal to twenty one and a half square kilometers.
Valparaiso is the main port of the Republic of Chile. In addition, Valparaiso is the second largest city in the Republic. The locals have "remade" such a long name into a more simplified version - they call the city only Valpo. This city is located Valparaiso one hundred and twenty kilometers northwest of the Chilean capital. We can say that Valparaiso is the starting point for the colonization of Chile. Ships departed from the port to new countries and islands. Currently, the city is a place where the mixing of cultures and peoples is very clearly traced. But this feature is more or less characteristic of the entire territory of the country. At the present stage, Valparaiso is a typical city of the Republic of Chile. However, the city is also one of the most intriguing places on the South American continent. The Valparaiso area is limited by a narrow strip between the hills and the coastline. Despite this, a huge number of winding streets fit into the intricate historic center of the city. The latter is surrounded by houses of the outskirts, stretching along the slopes. Many stairs and small footpaths bring visitors and townspeople to these houses. The center of Valparaiso is rightfully recognized as the Sotomayor square. It contains a monument to Captain Arturo Pratt. Major local attractions include the Muele Prat Pier, the Maritime Museum, the Art Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Houses of Parliament, the Victoria Square Fountain, the Cathedral, and numerous funiculars. There are a lot of restaurants in the city for every taste, and on the above-mentioned pier there is a rich market noise almost all the time.
Viña del Mar is the main beach resort in the Republic of Chile. It is located ten kilometers north of the city of Valparaiso. "Garden City" - this is how this place is usually called. The reason for such a beautiful name lies in its natural attractions (and this is a huge number of alleys of banana trees and palms, as well as wonderful landscapes) and the subtropical climate, which is very favorable for recreation here. Indeed, the main attractions of Viña del Mar are many parks, beaches with the purest white sand and stunning ocean water. The restored colonial mansions house numerous museums. This resort has a national botanical garden of the country. On an area of sixty-one hectares, hundreds of species of exotic and native plants grow. There is the Museum of Culture, the Museum of Fine Arts, the Municipal Theater, and the Wolf Castle, the Vergara Palace with a magnificent garden, and the unique "Flower Clock", and even a casino.
Puerto Montt is the gateway to the Lake District. This city is one of the most interesting cities in the country. Why "Gateway to the Lake District"? Because a little to the north of this city is the "Seven Lakes" region. But there are not seven lakes here, but a whole system. The lakes are of different sizes, from small to large. The most famous are the following lakes: Llanquihue, Villarrica, Rinko, Pangulyi, Kalafken, Peliaifa, Rignyue, Rango, Rupango, Lacar, Pireueiko, Neltume, etc. The first three lakes are the most popular. Villarrica is not only a lake, but also a volcano. At its foot is the resort village of Pucon. This place is ideal for yachting, thanks to which Pucon was chosen by the wealthy citizens of the Republic of Chile. In the immediate vicinity of Lake Neltume, a tourist can admire the Huilo-Huilo waterfall - the highest waterfall in the country. The city of Puerto Montt was founded in the middle of the nineteenth century. The founders of this city were German colonists, which is why its appearance is closely related to German architecture. Gabled tiled roofs of "girder" houses, characteristic weather vane crowning them, forged lattices of decorative balconies, impeccable cleanliness on the streets - all this proves the above-mentioned feature of the city. The main attractions of Puerto Monta are the wooden port and, of course, the Cathedral, erected in 1856. The cathedral is made of mahogany. The Cathedral is located in the main square of the city. However, a significant part of tourists arriving here aim to visit not so much this city as its surroundings. And this is not surprising. Their landscapes are famous throughout the country. We are talking about lakes. The reason for their formation lies in ancient tectonic processes. When there were huge glaciers here, and now, surrounded by coniferous and deciduous forests, many lakes, supplied with the purest water, delight the eyes of their visitors. The local landscapes are so stunning that they create associations with the lakes of Finland and Karelia.
Punta Arenas is one of the most amazing cities in the Republic of Chile.Punta Arenas is located in the hills on the shores of the Strait of Magellan. Once this city was among the largest American ports. However, with the opening of the Panama Canal, the situation has changed somewhat. Currently, Punta Arenas is considered one of the most picturesque cities in Chile. Luxurious palaces and mansions retain the imprint of the city's former greatness. Of particular interest are the Zona Franca economic zone, the business district, and the Regional Museum of Local Lore. Among the natural attractions are Milodon Cave, penguin colonies in Otway, the famous Great Falls, La Cruz hill. From the top of the latter, you can take in the stunning panorama of Punta Arenas. The northern part of Tierra del Fuego and the strait are also visible from the La Cruz hill.
Patagonia is a densely populated area. Quite the opposite. Two inhabitants per square kilometer is the average population density of Patagonia. Patagonia occupies part of the South American continent. This area is located south of the Bio-Bio River in the Republic of Chile and Rio Colorado in Argentina, includes in the east the low plains, plateaus, in the south and west of the Andes Mountains. There is no precise definition of its boundaries. Some scientists also attribute Tierra del Fuego to the territory of Patagonia. About thirty percent of Patagonia's territory is currently national parks and reserves. This fact is not surprising. Almost complete isolation from the rest of the South American continent led to the formation of unusual life forms. The late colonization of Patagonia made it possible to preserve the unique species. San Rafael Lagoon National Park is one of the main attractions of Patagonia. The height of the ice tongues - "children" of the San Valentin glacier, descending into the bay, reaches several tens of meters. Other gems of Patagonia include the Guamblin Islands, Magdalena Islands, De Wollaston Alacalufes, Bernardo O'Higgins, Alberto Agostini, Keulat National Parks, Torres del Paine National Park. The latter is included in the UNESCO lists and is famous all over the world. The islands of Termas de Puyuuapi, Risopatron, General Ibanez and others are also unusually picturesque, with floating icebergs creating a stunning view. Patagonia ranks among the best sport fishing spots on earth.
1520 is the year of the discovery of Tierra del Fuego. Magellan became the discoverer of this archipelago. However, due to the harsh climatic conditions, the colonization of Tierra del Fuego began only at the end of the nineteenth century. The first ranches were built in the archipelago by settlers from the Balkans and the British Isles. Currently, Tierra del Fuego is the largest center for sheep breeding in the country. The largest city in the archipelago is Porbenir. The name of the city is translated as "destiny". Porbenir, perhaps, can be called the most isolated settlement on the planet, moreover, it has retained the appearance of the beginning of the last century. The city lives thanks to fishing and sheep breeding. There is the Local History Museum and the beautiful Beagle Channel. From its shores, you can look at the harsh waters of Antarctica and the island of Navarino.
Easter Island is a famous island in the Pacific Ocean. It is located about three thousand eight hundred kilometers west of the Chilean coast. The area of the island is one hundred and seventy one kilometers. The island was discovered in 1722 on Easter day, which served as the basis for its name. The Dutchman Jacob Roggeven became the discoverer of Easter Island. Easter Island is the summit of an enormous seamount that rises above the ocean waters. There are as many as three volcanic craters and not a single lake or river. Its history is rich (which is the main asset of the island) and at the same time tragic. In fact, more peoples of Oceania live on the territory of Easter Island than Chileans. How it could have happened in this way that the Pacific islanders ended up in this isolated part of the world is still a mystery. Another secret is the mystery of "moai" - the secret of the colossal statues. The material for their creation was tuff and hard volcanic basalt. Many moai weigh more than two hundred tons and are over twenty-one meters high. The method of transporting these statues from the inland quarries to the coast remains a mystery. "Moai" are installed in a certain sequence, but what this sequence is, modern science does not know. Currently, Easter Island is actually a national park open to all comers. Every year it receives a large number of tourists who like the unknown. Everything is natural and simple on the island, on its territory you can hardly find five-star hotels and gorgeous beaches. True, this circumstance is not the reason that will stop the flow of visitors. There are so many interesting places on the island! Among the sights of the island (with the exception of "moai") are the following: quarries on the slopes of the Rano Raraku volcano, Ahu Akhanga, the Ahu Takhai fortress, the Rano Kau volcano, the Apu Vinapu temple, the ceremonial village of Orongo, Anakena Beach. And although the beaches on the island are deserted, for many it is rather an advantage than a disadvantage. Moreover, these beaches are with extraordinary pink sand.
Chileans wear their national dress every day. The overwhelming majority of local residents (and Indians are no exception) prefer modern European clothing. Sometimes it is only complemented by the Chilean variety of poncho, which is called so: "chamanato". Chamanato is a short cape. The woolen cape is very bright and endowed with a wide variety of patterns. The actual national costume is worn only by rodeo participants - young people. The essence of these competitions, which attracts residents from all over the area, is to show their ability to wield the lasso. Thus, young people demonstrate the skills of how to lasso a bull at a gallop.
Decorative folk art is a matter of special pride for the Chileans. Craftsmen of the Republic of Chile make metal decorations, carpets, blankets, woolen ponchos, wood and ceramics (the brightly colored small vessels and animal figures are especially beautiful). Jewelry and trinkets are very elegant, which is why they are in demand.
The Chileans are very friendly. This is true. Moreover, this fact applies even to the mountain Indian tribes. Their excessive cruelty is a lie that has been attributed to the Indians for a very long time. Residents of the Republic of Chile are very friendly towards tourists. Moreover, they differ in character, restrained by nature. The Chileans will help, if necessary, both in case of language difficulties and in case of everyday difficulties (for example, in finding a hotel).
Chilean national cuisine is unique in many ways. This feature stems from their combination of primordially national recipes with recipes brought here at different times by settlers from different countries. Chile's topographic diversity is also reflected in Chilean cuisine. The basis of the national cuisine is fresh fruits and vegetables, beef, seafood (and local seafood is rightfully considered the most delicious on the planet). The influence of European culinary traditions in the Central Valley is more noticeable, while the variety of ingredients for cooking in the mountainous regions is very small. Common in cooking for the entire territory of the Republic of Chile is the abundance in food of corn, yams, potatoes, peppers, garlic, and potatoes and rice are important components of the overwhelming number of Chilean dishes. Seafood and fish are another staple of local cuisine, especially in coastal areas. The exotic dishes of the Republic of Chile are the following: huge lobsters, shells baked in cheese, sea urchin soup.
Tea is a traditional drink in Chile. In any institution of the Republic, you can taste mate, green or black tea at will. Pisco is a traditional alcoholic beverage. "Pisco" is prepared according to old recipes from grapes specially grown for this drink, and is a kind of liquor. Pisco is usually drunk with plenty of ice, Coca-Cola, beaten egg or powdered sugar. Chilean wines made from selected grapes are also very popular.