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The Bible is a collection of texts sacred to Christians, consisting of the Old and New Testaments. If the Old Testament is written in Hebrew, then the New Testament is in Ancient Greek.
The Bible has been translated into more than 2000 languages of the world, published in full in 420 languages. The Bible itself, its composition, history and riddles are the subject of thousands of studies dating back to time immemorial.
However, the book is interesting in that some of the canonical passages in it, which it would seem to everyone, are not so unambiguous after a careful reading of the Holy Book. The book itself is woven from many myths, the plausibility of which is still debated. Let's consider the main biblical mysteries, myths.
The first person was named Adam. This statement is known to everyone and everyone, I foresee your indignation when I note that this is not true. However, the information about Adam is only biblical. Try to find for yourself in the first chapters of Genesis the place where Adam is directly called the first man on Earth. It is interesting how the Bible tells about the fate of Cain. He in the east in the land of Nod "knew his wife", later building the city of Enoch. But who gave the name to this land, and who settled the new city, and where did Cain's wife come from? It is often said that Cain's wife was his sister, also the daughter of Adam, and this confirms his primacy. But this is just a fantasy, since the Bible does not say anything about the daughter of Adam and Eve, while Cain is mentioned as a wanderer on Earth, where in Noda he met an unnamed betrothed. Yes, and marriages between brothers and sisters are fraught, it is unlikely that humanity could have come from such a couple, ending its kind in this case already in the fifth generation at the most. There is also an important argument in favor of the fact that the land of Nod was already inhabited - the construction of a city there. No one could call a settlement of one family a city, so Enoch had to be built and occupied by someone. Therefore, verses 16 and 17 of the 4th chapter of Genesis can be interpreted in the only sensible version - the land of Nod was already inhabited by some people who did not descend from either Eve or Adam. Let's see if this is not biblical. In its first chapter it is said that man and woman were created at the same time, but their names are not named, and it is not said in what area this happened. Already in the second chapter it is said that the first man was named Adam, while the woman was created later. The differences in the first two chapters have long puzzled researchers. Why not accept the fact that it is said about different creations - in the first chapter that the world and people were created, and in the second - a man named Adam, for whom the Garden of Eden was also created.
The Bible "knows" only one God. And again, it would seem, this idea does not require consideration, because the Bible itself is the source of monotheism. Both Christians and Jews claim. That the Holy Book was sent by the One Lord, it is written in the Bible itself. However, in the first chapter of Genesis, the original text did not speak of God, but of Elohim, which is the plural of Eloah or God. Yes, and the Bible speaks about the creation in the image of God, and not in the image of "His" man and woman, but this means that at least there were two Gods, since two such different human beings were created in their image! But the mentions of polytheism do not end there - the wicked serpent says to the woman: "and you will be like" Gods "(Gen. 3: 4). And the Lord himself says to Adam," Behold, Adam became like one of Us "(Gen. 3: 22), and in the story about the Tower of Babel: “Let us go down and confuse their language there.” (Gen. 11: 7) The adherents of monotheism argue, claiming that there is a self-denomination like the most august persons who speak of themselves in the plural. in the Bible no king speaks of himself like that, and God himself most often speaks of himself in the singular, even at the moment of the highest self-glorification in the book of Job: "I will ask you, and you explain to Me" (Job 40: 2 And there are plenty of such references to polytheism in the Bible. The Lord of the Jews, Yahweh, is the tribal patron god. The Kingdom of Judah was becoming, Yahweh began to rise above other rivals, he began to be called "God of the gods", "King over the gods", etc. In the Talmud, for Judaism, there is already only one God, as well as one people chosen by him.This is how the tribal God became supreme for all Christianity, and the tribal progenitor, Adam - the progenitor of all mankind.
The devil seduced Eve with an apple, after which she committed adultery with Adam. First of all, it is worth noting that the woman who was seduced by the snake was not called Eve; she received this name after the Fall. By the way, Eve means "life" in Hebrew. Further, nowhere in the Bible does it say that the fruit was an apple. It is doubtful that apples ever grow in the Middle East. Most likely, the myth about this fruit arose under the influence of the pagan idols of the goddesses of love - Aphrodite, Zhiva, Idunn were depicted with apples in hand. Who became the tempter? Devil or Satan, you say, but nowhere in the Bible does it say that the serpent was Satan. The serpent in the Bible is not always a symbol of the devil, the same Jacob predicted to his judge-son: "Dan will be a serpent on the road, an adder on the way" (Gen. 49:17). A beloved father would hardly call his son a devil. Yes, and Moses, at the direction of the Lord, hoisted a brazen serpent on the banner (Numbers 21: 9). Jesus Himself advises his disciples to be "wise as serpents" (Matt. 10:16). The book of Genesis says that "the serpent was more cunning than all the beasts of the field" (Gen. 3: 1), from which it quite clearly follows that the seducer was only a beast, and not a fallen angel. Yes, and the subsequent curses of the Lord against the serpent relate more to the animal-snake, and not to Satan, because the punishment has passed the devil, who flies safely, but the snakes continue to crawl and sting, being cursed in front of cattle and beasts. The Jews, by the way, do not know anything about the adultery committed by Eve. The Bible says that "Adam knew Eve, his wife," after the exile from paradise (Gen. 4: 1). Meanwhile, "adultery" entered everyday speech, expressions appeared: "the forbidden fruit of intimacy," "to eat the forbidden fruit with someone," and so on.
It was for the original sin that people were expelled from paradise. That this sin was not adultery is already clear. The Bible clearly says that the reason for the expulsion was the eating of the fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Gen. 2: 16-17; 3: 4-6,17). Of course, from the point of view of ethics, it is difficult to consider what was done as a crime, because those who ate the fruit were more naive than a child and did not really know what was evil and what was good. In this case, the educator or the parents are to blame in the children's environment, but the Lord, who created people, does not think so, although he also created the serpent-tempter. God punished a couple of people by cursing them. And exile, you ask? Exile was no longer a punishment, the Lord actually confirmed the righteousness of the serpent, who promised that "on the day on which you taste them, your eyes will be opened, and you will be like gods knowing good and evil" (Genesis 3: 5). Moreover, the Lord promised Adam “on the day on which you eat of him (the fruit), you will die” (Gen. 2:17), and the serpent had his own point of view: “No, you will not die” (Gen. 3: 4 ). After the fall, Adam lived another hundred and thirty years, so what - God just intimidated Adam? In fact, the Lord expresses the fear that Adam, having learned good and evil, will live forever, equal in this parameter to God. That is why Adam was expelled from paradise, and the cherub with a fiery sword guards the way back.
The Lord rejected the sacrifice of Cain, since it was not made from a pure heart. Cain's sacrifice rejected by God was rejected by the Lord, while God accepted Abel's sacrifice. This was the reason for the subsequent fratricide. Let's reread the Bible: "... And Abel was a shepherd of sheep, and Cain was a farmer. After a while, Cain brought from the fruits of the earth a gift to the Lord." And Abel also brought out of the firstborn of his flock and of their fat. And the "Lord" looked upon Abel and his gift, but he did not look upon Cain and his gift. "(Genesis 4: 2-5) This passage does not say anything about Cain's bad intentions, everything is simple - bloodless vegetable food of the farmer God did not like Cain, but the sacrifice with meat, fat and blood, which the sheep-breeder Abel brought, was just right. Such tastes of God are also spoken of in other places: "And Noah built an altar to the Lord; And he took of every clean cattle, and of every clean bird, and offered it as a burnt offering. And the “Lord smelled a pleasant scent.” (Gen. 8: 20-21). And in the future, right up to the construction of the temple of Jerusalem, the heroes made bloody offerings of cattle, in the Bible sacrifices to God were everywhere accompanied by bloodshed, so the reason for God's displeasure with the offering became clear Cain.
Cain killed Abel out of envy. This fact is even mentioned in the children's version of the Bible. Let's return to the original source - the Bible. "Cain was greatly grieved, and his face drooped" (Gen. 4: 5). But nowhere is a word said about envy, these are the fantasies of subsequent interpreters. The Lord calms Cain, calling him to do good deeds. But what does this term "good deed" mean? The brothers committed only one deed - a sacrifice, Cain did no good, but Abel did, it is logical to assume that the Lord understands by "good" - a bloody sacrifice. Abstracting from the fact that traditionally God appears to be peace-loving and merciful, what should a person do, from whom the Almighty demands a bloody sacrifice? Not surprisingly, after talking with the Lord, Cain kills his brother Abel. And human sacrifices are generally present in the Bible - Abraham almost killed Isaac, and Jephthah nevertheless put his daughter on the altar. And this is about their own people, and as regards foreigners, one can recall the sacrifice of the four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal, or the senseless and merciless extermination of captives in Exodus, Numbers and other books. It is worth recognizing that there is nothing surprising in the fact that the Lord, who demanded human sacrifice many times in the Bible, did the same in this case. One can believe that Cain was envious, that God saw and allowed fratricide, but this will have nothing to do with the Bible.
The fratricide Cain was punished. First of all, the Lord cursed Cain, everyone knows. However, the Bible says: "And now you are cursed from the earth, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand" (Gen. 4:11). That is, it is directly said that God does not curse Cain for his sacrifice, the fratricide is cursed and rejected by the earth for the blood of an innocent person. The allegory of the Lord should also not be perceived, since he usually speaks directly about his curses: "I will destroy people and cattle, I will destroy the birds of the air and the fish of the sea, and temptations along with the wicked; I will destroy people from the face of the earth, says the Lord" (Sof, 1 : 2-3). In anger from someone else's face, it is not mentioned anywhere. Cain replies to God: "My punishment is greater than you can bear ... I ... will be an exile and a wanderer on earth; and everyone who meets me will kill me" (Gen. 4: 13-14). By the way, one more mention of the fact that there were still people behind the earth then, because according to myths, only Cain's parents should have remained on Earth. But the Lord does not consider the death of Cain to be the compensation of sins: "And the Lord said to him: for this, everyone who kills Cain will be avenged sevenfold. And the Lord made a sign to Cain so that no one, meeting with him, would kill him" (Gen. 4:15). It is customary to mention a certain "Cain seal", which marks the villains, but in fact, the divine seal protected Cain from just retribution. But the promise to wander and be an exile did not come true - Cain got married in the land of Nod and founded a city, which somehow does not fit with the promised punishment. In fact, for his crime, Cain is not only not punished or cursed, but even rewarded. The thought creeps in that he acted at the prompting of the Lord. Interestingly, after some time, a descendant of Cain, Lamech, did a similar act, only he killed two people, saying: "If Cain will be avenged seven times, then Lamech - seventy times seven times" (Gen. 4: 23-24). Again, the Bible does not mention anything about the heavenly punishment of the criminal.
Cain came from the devil. According to the version of this myth, the devil seduced Eve in the literal sense, becoming the father of Cain, in which his father's beginning pushed him to a crime. First, such a version appeared among medieval heretics, later - among Satanists. However, as already mentioned, the devil was not involved in the history of the Fall, and the Fall itself was not adultery. Finally, the Bible clearly states: "Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived and gave birth to Cain" (Gen. 4: 1). Therefore, the thought of the unclean origin of Cain should be considered blasphemy.
The Flood destroyed all life except the Ark. Fast forward a little. When the Jews were preparing to enter the Promised Land, their scouts found giants there, whose height exceeded 4 meters. And giants have lived there since the time of David. There are suggestions that giants or Rephaim appeared on the planet even before the flood, because it is said: "the sons (of God" saw the daughters of men that they were beautiful, and took them as their wives, whatever one chose "(Genesis 6: 2). Commentators find it difficult unambiguously determine who were the sons of God? If they are angels, then can they possess mortal women and have offspring from them? If we are talking about Jews, then why in other places in the Bible are they called the sons of the Lord God? Let's risk assuming that the sons of God the descendants of the first couple of people, created by the Gods in their own image and likeness, are called the daughters of men - the offspring of Adam. Such "interracial" marriages could give rise to a tribe of giants, which may have caused the Lord's anger about the corruption of people on earth. The Bible directly indicates the fact that the giants continued to exist after the flood, but they could not be saved on the Ark, firstly, nothing is said about this, and, secondly, what is the point of saving those who actually and arranged? Noah himself could not be a giant because of the size of the Ark. Perhaps the key lies in the following lines: "And the" Lord "said: I will destroy from the face of the earth the men whom I have created, from men to cattle, and creeping things and birds of the air, I will destroy them, for I have repented that I created them" (Genesis 6: 7 ). "The end of all flesh has come before Me" (Genesis 6:13). If we assume that the Lord was of a tribal nature, and there were two human creations, then he destroyed only that which the Lord created, and not all over the planet, but only "in the face of" the Lord ", that is, in a specific region of the Middle East. they calmly survived the cataclysm in the land of Nod, and in the mountains of Palestine giants erected fortresses.
The Promised Land is a sacred blessed land. For many, the Promised Land sounds synonymous with an earthly paradise, in which there are no wars, people and their thoughts are pure. But the Bible says something else. The Lord really promised Moses to lead the people to a land where milk and honey would flow. It is interesting that even in the first promises of God to Abraham and Jacob, we are talking about a land that was already inhabited by different tribes - the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites and others. At the same time, the Lord explicitly orders: "If you smite them, then put them to a spell, do not enter into an alliance with them and do not spare them" (Deut. 7: 1-2). After that, as a consequence: "And at that time they took all his cities and put to the curse all the cities, men and women and children, did not leave anyone alive" (Deut 2:34). That is, there is either a slaughter, as a ritual sacrifice of thousands of people, or a spell, which means a total massacre.In the Bible, there are many places in which the Jews killed all of the people, leaving no one alive, for example: souls "(Josh, 11:14). You can of course refer to the fact that there were such times, but no, the extermination of entire tribes, with women and old people, was never considered normal. The cruel Vikings in their epic consider the fighter of the clan to be a villain, who will certainly be punished for this from the avenger. The ferocious Mongols, cutting out all the men of the tribe, did not kill the women, taking them prisoner, and often the men remained to live, imposed by tribute. In the Bible, "And Moses said to them: why did you leave all the women alive? So, kill all the male children and all the women" (Numbers 31: 15,17). In terms of mercy and nobility, the chosen ones of the Lord were far from the wild pagans of Genghis Khan and Batu. The term "promised land" literally means - the promised land. The tribal god promised his chosen people lands on which other tribes lived and worked. The indigenous population was mercilessly slaughtered in the name of the Lord, the land for the glory of God was flooded with rivers of blood. Therefore, you should be more careful with this term, remembering what is behind it.
The Bible's commandments are the same for everyone. For many, the ten biblical commandments are the measure of behavior and morality. However, it is worth asking a question - why is the most important commandment "Thou shalt not kill" so often in the Bible violated by goodies - sages, prophets, saints and kings? Moses himself literally the next day after receiving the commandments ordered: "the sons of Levi" to go with swords through the camp of the Jews "from gate to gate back, and kill every brother, every friend, every neighbor ... And that day fell from about three thousand people "(Ex. 32: 27-28). When reading the Bible, bewilderment only grows, in the laws proclaimed in the name of the Lord, literally every third crime is punishable by death - witchcraft, blasphemy and even disrespect to parents! And this applies to fellow tribesmen! In general, the attitude towards representatives of foreign tribes is clear - they should be cut out. One should carefully read the commandments given to Moses. Surprisingly, "Thou shalt not kill" is by no means the first of them, but only the sixth! Perhaps from this it follows that all the articles of the Hebrew law, which punish with death, relate to the previous five commandments, which, as it turned out, were more important, since they followed earlier "by status." Therefore, "Thou shalt not kill", in fact, concerned those who keep the first 5 commandments. According to the commandments brought by Moses, according to the Bible, only the one who worships the Lord and only him has the right to life, respectively, from among those who can exist, all nations are automatically excluded, except for one, the Chosen One. Christianity that emerged then with its bloody history did not deviate from ancient traditions.