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The palace is a large monumental ceremonial building, distinguished by its architecture, was originally the residence of the reigning rulers, the highest nobility, and since the 13th century, some buildings of state authorities were also called. The word palace comes from "princely court", the dwelling of the prince. From the 19th to 20th centuries, the most important public buildings began to be called palaces (the Palace of Culture, the Sports Palace, the Youth Palace, the Palace of Justice, etc.).
Potala Palace. This structure is the largest, tallest and most monumental structure in Tibet. The palace is built on the side of the Marpo Ri hill and rises above the Lhasa Valley at an altitude of 130 meters. The palace dates back to 637, when the Tibetan emperor Songtsen Gampo decided to move the capital to Lhasa, erecting a corresponding structure in this place. When the Chinese princess Wen Cheng became the emperor's wife, there were 999 rooms in the palace, a bypass channel was dug around the building, walls and towers were erected. The Potala Palace began to acquire its modern look in 1645, on the initiative of the fifth Dalai Lama. It took three years to build part of the building called the "White Palace", after which the Potala became the winter residence for the Dalai Lamas. In the period 1690-1694, another part was erected - the Red Palace. As a result, the Potala, thanks to 7 thousand workers and 1,500 artists, became an even more grandiose structure. 1959 led to minor destruction of the complex due to clashes with the Chinese army. But in the 60s of the 20th century, the red hongweipings did not touch the palace, unlike many other values of Tibet, today the interior of the Potala practically does not differ from its original appearance. Now the palace serves as a museum, tourists often visit here, the place is an object of pilgrimage for Buddhists. Buddhist rituals are held in Potala. The cultural value of the palace is so great that it was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994. The palace is stretched out on a mountain ridge, its towers, temples, stairs and walls are a unique artistic solution, tourists. The beauty of the complex attracts not only tourists and Buddhists, but also artists and architects.
Castle on the island of Mont Saint Michel. This medieval building is located on an artificial island near the Norman coast. The castle is connected to the mainland by means of a dam, which can be used exclusively at low tide. The tide makes the island an isolated and isolated fortress, naturally protected by wet sand and water. The fortress is located on a rock 78 meters high, so it is possible to reach it during high tides only by boat. French castles of that time usually served as defensive or recreational facilities. In contrast, Mont Saint Michel was a monastery from the very beginning. The island has been a refuge for Benedictine monks since 966. It was then that the first abbey appeared here. The monastery was erected with the financial assistance of the Duke of Normandy. 1017 was the year of the beginning of the construction of the central part of the monastery under the leadership of Abbot Hilderbert II, and the construction was completely completed only by 1520. Already in the 12th century, the abbey became very popular among pilgrims in Western Europe, the power, prestige and influence of Mont Saint Michel were growing. There were even copies of the abbey, for example, Mount St. Michael in Cornwall. By the way, about fifty Benedictine monks who serve God here permanently reside in Mont Saint-Michel. The unique castle is the most famous and popular tourist attraction in Normandy. Up to 4 million people visit the island every year. It is believed that the popularity of Mont Saint Michel in the country is second only to Versailles and the Eiffel Tower. The castle entered the culture of France - it is found in many local films, animation and even in video games.
Predjama rock castle. Of course, each castle is unique in its own way, but this Slovenian building has "outdone" many. The thing is that this castle is carved into a cave complex, the second largest in the country. This integration into the rock, 123 meters high, explains the relatively small size of the building. The name itself, Predjamski Castle, is literally translated as "Castle in the rock". The building appeared here a long time ago, the first mentions date back to the 13th century, while the left wing is even more ancient, its erection is believed to have occurred at the beginning of the 12th century. The middle of the castle was erected during the Renaissance, and the right wing appeared by 1570. Gradually, the castle was supplemented with details, and something was lost. Its complete restoration was carried out in 1990, as a result, the castle acquired the form that it had in the 16th century. The building often changed owners, but the most famous of them was Erasmus, who in the 15th century was hiding here from persecution for murder. However, in the cold castle, the nobleman was bored, and he also traded in plundering the surroundings. The siege of the castle lasted for a whole year, during which the defenders did not suffer in the least from lack of supplies. As it turned out, there was a secret passage from the castle to the outside, closed only in the 17th century. It was possible to take the fortress only with the help of treason, the robber knight was killed on a medieval toilet.
Neuschwanstein Castle. Translated from the German name of this castle is translated as "New Swan Stone". It is located near the town of Fussen, in Germany. The construction was initiated by King Ludwig the Mad, better known to historians as Ludwig II of Bavaria. Construction began on September 5, 1869; from the very beginning, it began to move not as fast as the monarch would have liked. The fact is that the placement of such a rather complex architectural structure in the mountains was a rather difficult task. As a result, many artisans, architects and artists worked on the embodiment of Ludwig's ideas. Driven by the king, the workers toiled literally day and night. The construction ended in 1891. During the construction of the castle, the most advanced technologies of that time were used; a detailed design of the building was even drawn up. Water was supplied to all floors, the toilet had a drain, and the rooms and halls were heated with warm air. The king, on the other hand, could call the servants using an electric bell, there were also telephones on the third and fourth floors. The beautiful Neuschwanstein Castle is recommended to visit for every tourist visiting these lands, because this building is even difficult to call a castle. This is the dream palace of the creator king, embodied exactly in the form he wanted, but did not manage to see.
Matsumoto Castle. This is one of the most beautiful Japanese castles, locals also call it "Karasu-jo" or "Crow Castle". Its peculiarity is the fact that it is built on water, in Japan this style is called "Hirajiro". Both towers of the castle were built in the period from 1592 to 1614, they are well protected, which was necessary in an era and a place of constant confrontation. In 1635, there was no longer a military threat to the castle, then a third tower was erected, which was intended to monitor the movement of the moon. The castle is located on an area of 39 hectares. In addition to the powerful citadel, there are three moats here. On the first three floors of the main tower, food and ammunition were stored, and the garrison was also located here. The fourth floor is luxuriously furnished - the prince himself lived here with his family. The fifth floor served as the headquarters of the military commanders, and the highest, the sixth, at a height of 22 meters, was an observation deck. A small Shinto chapel is located under the very roof. Today the castle is a true national treasure in Japan.
Huniad Castle. It is located in the Romanian town of Hunedoara. Once the castle was part of the Transylvanian principality, it was here, according to legend, since 1462, for 7 years, Vlad III of Wallachian, better known as Count Dracula, was imprisoned. The castle was built in the early 14th century by King Carol Robert de Anjou. Once upon a time on this hill above the river there was an ancient Roman structure. The castle was built in the Gothic style, there are elements of the Renaissance and Baroque. The monumental structure was left behind by the Hungarian Hunyadi dynasty. The castle has many towers, a high bright roof, many balconies and windows, stone decoration. Numerous owners of the castle have altered it in their own way, but the main value of the castle - the "Don't be afraid" hall of honor has remained unchanged. In the courtyard of the castle there is a well 30 meters deep, according to legend, it was dug by three captured Turks, who were promised freedom at the end of the work. As a result, the owners of the castle did not keep their promises, they say that the captives left the inscription "You have a well, but no hearts" at the bottom. In 1854, a great fire severely damaged the castle, and restoration work lasted almost 100 years.
Marienburg Castle. This building is the work of the Teutonic knights who once lived in Prussia. The purpose of the castle was to stay there as the residence of the Masters of the Teutonic Order. There was even a town with the same name. Construction began in 1274, and in 1309 the Grand Master of the Order moved here from Venice. The castle grew, soon the territory inside the walls covered more than 200 thousand square meters, and the population was 3 thousand people. After the defeat at Grunwald, the castle was in the hands of mercenaries, then as part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Under Napoleon, there were barracks and an arsenal here. Over time, the medieval appearance of the building was lost, but reconstruction by Gothic lovers in the 19th century returned the castle to its historical appearance. The Second World War seriously affected the castle - it was almost completely destroyed, but actually rebuilt. Only the cathedral remained in ruins. Today Marienburg is a major tourist center in Poland. This classic medieval fortress was even included in the list of world attractions in 1887. After all, the castle is completely made of bricks, there is simply nothing like it on Earth.
Palacio de Pena. This is the oldest palace built in the style of European romanticism. The building is located on top of a hill near the Portuguese city of Sintra. In clear weather, Pena Palace can be seen even from Lisbon. Originally built in the 15th century, the castle was supposed to become a palace, but later it was given to a cathedral and a monastery. For a long time, no more than eighteen monks lived here. An earthquake in 1755 thoroughly destroyed the beautiful castle, but in 1838, by order of Prince Fernando, the palace was restored to its original form. After the completion of the work, the palace changed owners several times, until in 1910 the state bought it out, turning it into a museum. Experts believe that the uniqueness of the castle lies in the fact that the Bavarian and Moorish styles were added to the romantic style. Mixing styles gave the building bright unforgettable colors. The castle today is not only a UNESCO World Heritage Site, but also one of the Seven Wonders of Portugal.
Castle Leuvenburg. It is located in Wilhelmshöhe Hill Park, on the outskirts of the German city of Kassel. The building is so sustained in a medieval style that it would seem that Disneyland of that time could be located here. Löwenburg in translation means "Lion's Castle", it was built in the period from 1793 to 1801 by the local landgrave Wilhelm IX, although the castle on this place existed since the 13th century, but was destroyed long ago. The style of the building is very interesting - romantic ruins. The royal castle was designed by the architect Heinrich Christoph Jussoff, who traveled around England for a long time, observing the local romantic sights. This is the first castle built in the neo-Gothic style in Germany, experts consider it to be quite remarkable of its kind. Many medieval features are embodied here - a drawbridge, a moat. Even the furniture and interior items are medieval. From the side, Leuvenburg looks like a real medieval fortress, although it is not.
Prague Castle. This castle is one of the largest in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records. This is the fortress of the city of Prague, a whole administrative city district. Today it houses the residence of the President of the Czech Republic, and earlier it was inhabited by Czech kings, some of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire and presidents of Czechoslovakia. Prague Castle reached its greatest peak in the 14th century, when Charles IV ruled. It was he who made this place the residence of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. Karl intended to eventually make Prague a major European capital, which is why large-scale construction work was carried out in the castle. Here are collected numerous historical, artistic and architectural masterpieces. The center of the architectural complex is the St. Vitus Cathedral - the main cathedral of Prague. The castle houses ancient palaces, several gardens, and dwelling houses. The adornment of the place is the old Golden Street, which features two-storey dwarf houses built into the arches of the old fortress wall. According to legend, alchemists lived in them.