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By the end of the third trimester: height - 50-51 cm, weight - 2900-5000 g.
By the beginning of the third trimester, all the baby's organs have been created, formed, and now it is only a question of preparing them for existence outside the mother's womb.
The baby begins to intensively store subcutaneous fat, which acts as a thermoregulator, so he and his mother are rapidly gaining weight. By the end of the trimester, the baby grows so much that it becomes cramped in the uterus and the intensity of his movements gradually decreases.
From about 32 weeks, the baby turns head down and thus begins to prepare for birth. Gradually, his head sinks lower and lower into the area of the mother's pelvis. Two to four weeks before delivery, what is called a "lowering of the abdomen" will occur.
The abdomen changes its shape, with all its weight presses down when the child presses the head to the bottom of the small pelvis, that is, takes the "pre-start position" You can check if the belly has dropped by placing your palm between your chest and belly. If she lies calmly in the hollow, then the stomach has dropped, if it does not fit, then not yet.
In rare cases (about 4-5% of the total number of births), the baby remains in the pelvic or transverse presentation. Then the process of childbirth can be complicated, and in some cases the doctor decides on a caesarean section.
The child's brain is now equal to a quarter of the mass of an adult's brain, and the head itself is 60% of the adult's head in size. With the help of a special substance, myelin increases and speeds up the contact between nerve cells.
The brain is developing more and more, and the baby is now not only able to hear or detect taste, he is able to compare information and react to it, of course, not as good as a born child, but not as bad as it often seems.
The kid feels the difference between the voice of the father and the mother, between other sounds, he understands whether the mother is worried or she feels good, he can even learn something. Unfortunately, the baby also already feels pain well and reacts to it with suffering.
By the time of delivery, the baby becomes plump, pink, the lanugo fluff disappears from his body, the skin is smoothed and becomes soft and smooth. Thanks to the special lubricant, it will be easier for the baby to slip into the birth canal. He has developed about 70 reflex movements that help him survive outside the womb.
The baby is less and less dependent on the mother or the placenta. A surfactant accumulates in his lungs - a substance that prevents the lungs from sticking together when inhaling and exhaling. By the 34th week, the baby is able to breathe on its own, although, of course, he must be under the close supervision of doctors. But a child born at 28 weeks can also survive.
The critical days of the third trimester are 28-32 weeks, when there is another intensive growth of the uterus. Premature birth can be caused by hormonal disorders, problems with the placenta (detachment), isthmic-cervical insufficiency (almost painless dilation of the cervix, causing labor), late toxicosis (preeclampsia, eclampsia).
Sometimes doctors decide to give birth early if the mother's life is at risk (diabetes, kidney failure, heart problems, etc.).
Weight gain of 14-15 kg compared to the pre-pregnancy period. The height of the bottom of the uterus at the time of delivery is 39-41 cm. Weight stabilizes 1-2 weeks before delivery, some women even lose a little weight. This is one of the signs of an impending birth.
In the last trimester of pregnancy, it is time to prepare a dowry for the baby (at least basic things), and most importantly, to decide on the maternity hospital in which you are going to give birth. Remember that home births are not provided for by the standards of labor management developed in Russia, and can only occur in emergency cases, when it is not possible to deliver the woman in labor to the hospital.
From 28 weeks with multiple pregnancies and from 30 weeks of normal pregnancy, a woman goes on maternity leave. In order to receive payments, you must take a sick leave from the antenatal clinic. Other necessary documents that you need to have on hand are a generic certificate, an exchange card and an OMS policy.
The abdomen becomes very large, which causes some discomfort, especially at night - it is very difficult to lie down comfortably in order to sleep peacefully. In addition, the uterus presses on the bladder and the frequency of going to the toilet increases every day.
If we add to this the traditional heartburn, then it is quite understandable why many pregnant women suffer from insomnia. After the stomach drops, it will become a little easier to breathe and heartburn will decrease, but the frequency of urination will increase even more.
In the third trimester, the pelvic bones begin to disperse under the influence of a special hormone relaxin, sometimes this is accompanied by rather unpleasant sensations. In this way, the birth canal is prepared for the child, and the woman's gait changes - now she waddles like a duck, which is quite funny.
After giving birth, everything will return to normal. But now you need to pay attention to the weakening of the ligaments between the bones, the stability of your body decreases. Therefore, you must walk sedately and slowly in comfortable shoes and do not expose yourself to the risk of falling.
Braxton training contractions are becoming quite palpable. They do not last long and occur irregularly, but they help the baby move to the cervix.
From the 30th week of pregnancy, you must see your doctor weekly. The main dangers of the third trimester:
- fetal hyposmia caused by various reasons (anemia in the mother, problems with the umbilical cord, etc.);
- detachment or placenta previa, one of the signs of which is bleeding. With a timely visit to a doctor, you can either correct the situation with medication or have time to save the child by cesarean section;
- the absence of movement of the child for too long a period of time. True, the baby can just fall asleep soundly, but it's better to play it safe and call the doctor. Better yet, buy a stethoscope in advance (it's inexpensive) and learn how to listen to it;
- Premature birth (which took place before 38 weeks) can occur due to hypertension in the mother, infections, various anomalies in the structure of the uterus and cervix. Of course, premature birth is very undesirable, but modern technology allows an infant born in the third trimester to be delivered with almost 100% success.
36 weeks is already considered a period that is quite acceptable for normal childbirth, as every fourth woman now gives birth. At 37 weeks, one in three gives birth, and up to 40 weeks, a minority generally gives birth.
It can also happen that there is a prolonged pregnancy. If labor does not begin at 41-42 weeks, then additional examinations are done to exclude an error in the timing or to find out in time that the child is experiencing any difficulties. In extreme cases, medication stimulation or cesarean section is prescribed.
The test schedule for the third trimester is as follows:
Clinical blood test - 28, 32, 36 weeks;
General urine analysis - 28, 30, 32, 33-35, 36, 37, 38-40 weeks;
Hemostasiogram with D-dimer (test for blood clotting) - 28 weeks;
Analysis for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis - 32, 37 weeks;
Gynecological smears for infections - 36 weeks;
ECG - 28 weeks;
Doppler ultrasound - 30 weeks;
CTG - 30, 31, 32, 33-35, 36, 37, 38-40 weeks.
2nd trimester - 3rd trimester - Childbirth