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Man is an amazing creature. No wonder we are called the crown of nature. Human possibilities are truly endless. Scientists still cannot explain some of our phenomenal abilities. And man never ceases to amaze and amaze, demonstrating more and more new miracles.
It is not without reason that we are believed to use only a small part of our brain. The most unusual human talents will be discussed below.
Super taste. The ability to taste food significantly improves our life. However, there are rare specialists, they are called super tasters. They, by their very nature, can taste much better than other people. Scientists have identified the nature of this ability. It lies in the presence of an additional mushroom-shaped growth on the tongue. This is where taste buds are located in humans, and super-tasters have these abilities to a greater extent. As a result, such people react to taste much more strongly. We know its five main shades: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and a kind of "meaty taste". Supertasters respond best to bitterness. Scientists did not immediately reveal this ability of a person. At first, it was noticed that not all people react in the same way to the taste of products known to others. Especially to reveal this, Arthur Fox, who worked as a chemist at the American chemical corporation DuPont, conducted a series of experiments. He gave the taste of phenylthiocarbomide. As a result, not everyone could feel its bitterness. This ability is genetically inherent in us. Now, other genetic studies are based on this test. As a result, of those people who have felt the bitterness of phenylthiocarbomide, only a third can be considered super tasters. The abilities of the rest are average. Super tasters do not like to eat everything. They try to avoid bitter foods. We are talking about coffee, Brussels and common cabbage, grapefruit juice. Scientists have found that Asians, Africans and women are more likely to be among the super-tasters. After all, it is they who are genetically more likely to get those same mushroom growths.
Perfect pitch. There are few people who can define and reproduce tones. They are said to have perfect pitch. Moreover, such people can not only hear better, they are still in the brain able to classify sounds and remember their categories. In everyday life, this can manifest itself in the form of determining the sounds we are used to - musical instruments, sirens or engine sounds. Such people can easily sing the specified note, name the chord of the song. There is no problem memorizing the frequency of each tone and naming it. Scientists are still arguing, trying to understand whether perfect pitch is a genetic feature of a person or not. Opinions differ radically here. In total, from 3% of residents in the United States and up to 8% in Europe have perfect pitch. Most of these unique people can be found in music conservatories, for example, in Japan, their number reaches 70%. Such a large indicator is explained by the fact that in an environment with tonal languages, the ear for music is formed much better and more often. We are talking about Vietnamese, Mandarin, Cantonese. Also, perfect pitch is common among those born blind, autistic and those with William's syndrome.
Light perception. Some people can see light from four different sources. There are several such examples in nature. The most famous is the zebra fish. They distinguish between red, blue, green and ultraviolet ranges in the light spectrum. It is said that true perception is extremely rare in humans. However, two cases of this phenomenon are known. In ordinary people, there are three types of receptors. Thanks to them, we distinguish between the red, blue and green parts of the spectrum. Each of the receptors can recognize about a hundred color shades. Then the brain mixes these signals and selects the brightness. As a result, we can see some part of the million shades that actually paint our lives. And people with true light perception, in theory, can perceive already up to 100 million shades. In fact, they see the world with different eyes. As with super-tasting, this ability is more common in women. The other extreme is color blindness, which is more common in men. Curiously, this unpleasant trait can be inherited from a woman with strong light perception.
Echolocation. This ability allows, in particular, bats to navigate in dark forests. Animals release sound and wait for its reflection from an object, an echo. It is used to further determine the distance to an object. But such a unique ability is also found in humans. Echolocation may be used by some blind people. True, this skill requires a lot of training and a strong sensitivity to pick up the reflected sound. To work with his echolocation, a person must actively create noise. It could even be a simple click of the tongue. Thanks to the echo comes an understanding of where exactly the objects around are located. It is believed that people with this skill can determine not only the location of the object, but also its size. Only a person cannot generate and hear high frequency sounds, as dolphins or bats can do. So we can only determine the location of the largest objects. But sonar animals have much more possibilities. The most famous people with the ability to echolocate are Daniel Kish, James Holman, and Ben Underwood. The latter's name is most often found in the press. He lost his sight at the age of three, but gained a new unique ability.
Genetic chimerism. In his "Iliad" the great Homer described an unusual mythological creature. It possessed body parts from various animals. The name of the monster gave the name to a rare genetic disorder - chimerism. It is also called tetragametism. The deviation appears in both humans and animals in those early stages of pregnancy, when two fertilized eggs or embryos combine into a single unit. Each zygote has a copy of its parent's DNA, hence two different genetic strands. When cells fuse, their genetic character remains, and the embryo receives a mixture of two DNAs. We can say that the human chimera is essentially its own twin. In humans, this deviation is very rare. Scientists have counted about 40 such cases. Usually, DNA analysis is used to determine if a person is biologically related to those who call themselves parents. However, this test can also uncover cases of chimerism. This happens if the DNA result suddenly shows that the child is not biologically related to his mother. And the thing is that the child simply inherited a different DNA profile. This is exactly what happened in the famous story with Lydia Fairchild. On the basis of DNA tests of her and her children, the state concluded that she was not a biological mother. People with genetic chimerism have better immune systems. They are tolerant of both genetically different types of cells present in the body. In practice, this means that there may be many more potential organ donors for chimera people.
Synesthesia. Let's imagine that each letter or number will be associated with a color. And some words will simply evoke a taste sensation. Both of these forms are related to a neurological disorder called synesthesia. It manifests itself in the involuntary reaction of some sensors to the excitement of completely different ones. This feature is genetic, usually it manifests itself in the connection of numbers and letters with certain colors. However, such an unusual neurological disease does not make a person disabled at all, since abilities do not suffer from this. Most people with synesthesia are unaware of the fact that some events in their lives evoke more sensory responses than most others. True, the owners of synesthesia believe that this deviation still negatively affects their lives. It is still difficult to say how many people have such a deviation. The data varies from 1 to 20 people per 20 thousand. When in 2005-2006 we conducted a study of a group of strangers, it turned out that about 5% have synesthesia. Among famous people with such a deviation, one can single out the writer Vladimir Nabokov, the composer Olivier Messiaen, the physicist Richard Feinman.
People are calculators. People with autism have many interesting characteristics. In particular, they constitute the most extraordinary group of connoisseurs. Such people can do the most complex calculations in their minds. Trained specialists also have this ability, we are talking about mathematicians, linguists and writers. However, for untrained autists, this talent is quite interesting. Many of these people are already born with Scientist Syndrome. But of all people with this deviation, only half are autistic. This syndrome is poorly understood, it usually develops throughout life, possibly due to a head injury. In total, at least a hundred of the most famous outstanding autistic scientists are known in the world, who have the ability to quickly operate with large numbers in the brain. Recent experiments have shown that there is a factor that helps human calculators solve mathematical problems much faster than ordinary people. We are talking about blood flow to the part of the brain that is responsible for mathematical calculations. For these people, this rate is six to seven times higher than usual. Among people with such extraordinary skills are Salo Finkelstein, Alexander Aitken, Daniel McCartney. And Daniel Tammet is not only autistic, but also susceptible to synesthesia.
Super memory. There are people who can instantly remember everything they see. This photographic memory is also called living memory. Thanks to this, people remember very accurately sounds, images or objects themselves. The most famous example is Akira Haraguchi. She was able to remember 100 thousand decimal places of the number "Pi". Autistic Steven Vilchir was able to depict his vacation in Rome in great detail in his drawings. And in the movie "Rain Man" is about Raymond Babbitt, who also had a living memory. Dustin Hoffman's character from memory could recall about 12 thousand books. The question of the existence of a true photographic memory remains open. But it is already clear that this ability is evenly distributed between both sexes. But no one has yet succeeded in learning living memory through long training sessions.
Immortal cells. Humanity has long been looking for a path to immortality. But today science knows one person whose cells turned out to be immortal. They are able to share endlessly, even outside their native body. This man is the woman Henrietta Lax. She was born in 1920 and at 31 she was diagnosed with cervical cancer. A year of serious illness passed and Henrietta passed away. Some unknown surgeon took samples of tumor tissue without the consent of his relatives. This material was then passed on to Dr. George Gee. This scientist for his laboratory reproduced tissue samples of a woman, creating from them an endless cell line - the HeLa line (on behalf of Henrietta Lux). It turned out that the cells from Henrietta's tumor had an active form of the enzyme, it spread very quickly. HeLa multiplied faster than even other cancer cells. In 1951, doctors announced that medicine would now take a new path in research on the treatment of cancer. HeLa cells are now very common in laboratories. They even evolved to adapt to new conditions, some branches appeared. Today Henrietta has even more living cells than she had during her lifetime. Their mass exceeds the weight of the woman herself. Unfortunately, she herself will never be able to find out what contribution she has made to science. In 1954, HeLa cells were used by Jonas Salk to develop a polio vaccine. Since then, cells have been actively used in the study of cancer, AIDS, the effects of radiation, and poisoning with toxic substances. And in cloning HeLa they turned out to be in demand.